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[WTS] 1910 Sovereign, 1909 $5 Indian Head, 1888 $5 Liberty, 1/10 AGE Proof, 4 oz $500 Bill, 14K Ring W/ 1887 S $5, 1889 CC, Morgan Dollars, Seated Half’s, 10K,14K,18K Nice Rings & Jewelry, 925 Jewelry

2020.10.20 02:58 Redditaccount1543354 [WTS] 1910 Sovereign, 1909 $5 Indian Head, 1888 $5 Liberty, 1/10 AGE Proof, 4 oz $500 Bill, 14K Ring W/ 1887 S $5, 1889 CC, Morgan Dollars, Seated Half’s, 10K,14K,18K Nice Rings & Jewelry, 925 Jewelry

1889 CC Morgan Silver Dollar - PCGS Cleaned - VF Detail - $850
4 - 1897 P, 1898 P, 1900 O, 1902 O Morgan Dollars - $27.50/Each
2 - 1881 S, 1898 S Morgan Silver Dollars - $26.50/Each
1853 O Seated Liberty Half Dollar - VG - $50 SOLD
1858 Seated Liberty Half Dollar - Fine - $50 SOLD
14K Ring W/ 1887 S $5 Liberty Gold Half Eagle , Size 11.5-12, 22.30 Grams - $1,150 Coin weight = 8.36 grams, 14k = 13.94 grams
1910 Great Britain Sovereign - 0.2355 AGW - $460 Melt = $448, Approx 2.5% Above Spot. SOLD
1909 $5 Indian Head - Painted With Bright Colors - $495 SOLD
1888 $5 Liberty Gold Half Eagle - 18,201 Mintage - Key Date - $620
1992-P 1/10 oz Proof American Gold Eagle Coin - $230
2018-W $10 1/10 Gold American Liberty High Relief - NGC - PF 69 Ultra Cameo - $275
14K Women’s Movado Swiss Watch Solid Gold - 35.7 grams - 6.25” Inches Long - $1500
925 Sterling Silver Spoons 4.25 oz @ SPOT - $87.47
Wedding Bands
BZ 95% Platinum Ring - Size 8.5-8.75 - 11 Grams - $400
14K White Gold Ring - Size 4.75 - 3.68 Grams - $175
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 6.5 - 6.32 Grams - $295
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 7.5-7.75 - 5.33 Grams - $255
14K ArtCarved White Gold Ring, Size 8.5, 6 Grams - $280
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 11.5 - 7.30 Grams - $345
18K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 8 - 6.31 Grams - $385
18K White Gold/Platinum Ring - Size 9 - 9.22 Grams - $650
10K Columbian Emerald (1.36 Carat) Ring - Size 5 - 1.90 Grams - $175 Or Reasonable Offer
10K Mexico Jospeh Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - 10.23 grams 3% Under Spot - $253
14k Gold Bracelet 11.5 grams, 31 diamonds - $650
14K Cross Pendant With Chain - 17.5” Inches Long - 3.75 grams - $160
14K Jesus Cross Crucifixion Pendant - 2.11 Grams - $90
14K Oval Jadeite Cabochon Greek Key Ring, HONG KONG, SIZE 10 - $295 SOLD
14K Opal/Diamond Pendant, 8.61 grams - $1,600 On Consignment Ask Me About It If Intrested
Opal Rings
10K Opal Ring - 5 Carat Opal - Size 6.5 - 8.66 grams - $650
10K Yellow Gold Opal Ring, Size 6.75 - $425
10K Australian Opal Ring - Size 6.75 - 3.02 Grams - $225
14K Beautiful Yellow/Orange/Green/White/Black Stone Pendant - 13.71 grams - $475
10K Red Stone Ring, Size 6.25 - $115
Black Hills 925 Sterling Silver Bracelet With 12K Gold Leafs, 8” inches long, 20.28 grams - $150**
925 Sterling Silver - David Yurman Style - Ribbed Cable Link Style - 17” Inches Long - 19.50 Grams - $36
Wallace 925 Sterling Silver Ice Cube Grabber - 20.94 grams - 4” Inches Long - $35
925 Sterling Silver Turquoise Pawn Silver Bracelet - 22.6 grams - 2.5” Inch Bendable Diameter - $55
925 Turquoise Bracelet - 8.88g - $17.50
925 Turquoise Blue/Red Pendant - 4.9 grams - $12.50
925 Sterling Silver Corinna-Maria Jewelry Dog Pendant - $8
925 Italy Sterling Silver Necklace - 16” Inches Long - $7
925 India Sterling Silver Necklace - 16” Inches Long - $6
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 7” Inches Long - 7.36 Grams - $15
925 Sterling Silver Flower Earrings - 11.2 Grams - $16
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $30
925 Italy Sterling Silver Gold Plated Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - 15.07 Grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $25
2 - 925 Mexico Taxco Sterling Silver Bracelet/Bangle - 2.5” Inch Diameter - $35/Each
925 Mexico TC-177 Bracelet Sterling Silver - Diameter 2-3” Inches Adjustable - 20.86 grams - $40
925 Sterling Silver Turquoise Pawn Silver Bracelet - 22.6 grams - 2.5” Inch Bendable Diameter - $55
Siam Sterling Silver Bangle Bracelet Etched Design Pattern - $55
925 Thai Sterling Silver Necklace with Black Gemstone Dress Pendant - 18.5” Inches Long - $15
925 Sterling Silver Necklace with Blue Stone Pendant - 17” Inches Long - $25
925 Sterling Silver Necklace With Pearl Pendant - 16” Inches Long - 22.42 grams - $40
925 Green Rock Ring, Size 8.75 - **$15
925 Sterling Silver Green Rock Moveable Ring - Size 6-6.25 - 7.41 grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Ring - Size 7 - 13.62 grams - $20
925 Liquid Silver 30 Strand Necklace With 10 Strand Earrings - $60
925 Wells Sterling Silver Leaf Brooch - $8
925 Sterling Silver Leaf/Green Stone Brooch - 7.46g - $14
925 Sterling Silver Belt Buckle Blue/White/Red/Dark Blue - 24.87 Grams @ SPOT - $20.08
925 Sterling Silver Rose Pendant - $5
925 Thailand Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $5
Aspire 925 Sterling Silver - My Family Tree Pendant - $7
925 Mexico MM-34 Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $15
Bell Trading Post Abalone 925 Sterling Silver Vintage Pendant 1936-1969 - $15
ATI Mexico 925 Sterling Silver Black Onyx Pendant - 22.18g - $30
Will Consider Trades for gold or silver on select items and offers are welcome as well
I accept PayPal Friends and Family, Zelle, Venmo, Cash App, Zelle, Google pay
Bitcoin and other crypto currencies now accepted
0-4 oz - $4 5-8 oz - $4.25 9-12 oz - $6 Priority shipping =$8, Stamped envelope - $1, medium flat rate box = $15
•Signature Confirmation $3 (Optional)
•Insurance is also available at buyers expense.
•I pack safely and discretely.
•Prices are subject to change at any moments notice.
•Message me if you have any questions.
•All packages will be dropped off on Tuesday or Wednesday.
•Once I drop the package at the post office I’m not responsible for USPS mistakes or losses
submitted by Redditaccount1543354 to Coins4Sale [link] [comments]

2020.10.20 02:56 Redditaccount1543354 [WTS] 1910 Sovereign, 1909 $5 Indian Head, 1888 $5 Liberty, 1/10 AGE Proof, 4 oz $500 Bill, 14K Ring W/ 1887 S $5, 1889 CC, Morgan Dollars, Seated Half’s, 10K,14K,18K Nice Rings & Jewelry, 925 Jewelry

14K Ring W/ 1887 S $5 Liberty Gold Half Eagle , Size 11.5-12, 22.30 Grams - $1,150 Coin weight = 8.36 grams, 14k = 13.94 grams
1910 Great Britain Sovereign - 0.2355 AGW - $460 Melt = $448, Approx 2.5% Above Spot. SOLD
1909 $5 Indian Head - Painted With Bright Colors - $495 SOLD
1888 $5 Liberty Gold Half Eagle - 18,201 Mintage - Key Date - $620
1992-P 1/10 oz Proof American Gold Eagle Coin - $230
2018-W $10 1/10 Gold American Liberty High Relief - NGC - PF 69 Ultra Cameo - $275
1889 CC Morgan Silver Dollar - PCGS Cleaned - VF Detail - $850
14K Women’s Movado Swiss Watch Solid Gold - 35.7 grams - 6.25” Inches Long - $1500
1853 O Seated Liberty Half Dollar - VG - $50 SOLD
1858 Seated Liberty Half Dollar - Fine - $50 SOLD
925 Sterling Silver Spoons 4.25 oz @ SPOT - $87.47
4 - 1897 P, 1898 P, 1900 O, 1902 O Morgan Dollars - $27.50/Each
2 - 1881 S, 1898 S Morgan Silver Dollars - $26.50/Each
Wedding Bands
BZ 95% Platinum Ring - Size 8.5-8.75 - 11 Grams - $400
14K White Gold Ring - Size 4.75 - 3.68 Grams - $175
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 6.5 - 6.32 Grams - $295
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 7.5-7.75 - 5.33 Grams - $255
14K White Gold Diamond? Ring - Size 8-8.25 - 2.40 Grams - $165
14K ArtCarved White Gold Ring, Size 8.5, 6 Grams - $280
14K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 11.5 - 7.30 Grams - $345
18K Yellow Gold Ring - Size 8 - 6.31 Grams - $385
18K White Gold/Platinum Ring - Size 9 - 9.22 Grams - $650
10K Columbian Emerald (1.36 Carat) Ring - Size 5 - 1.90 Grams - $175 Or Reasonable Offer
10K Mexico Jospeh Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - 10.23 grams 3% Under Spot - $253
14k Gold Bracelet 11.5 grams, 31 diamonds - $650
14K Cross Pendant With Chain - 17.5” Inches Long - 3.75 grams - $160
14K Jesus Cross Crucifixion Pendant - 2.11 Grams - $90
14K Oval Jadeite Cabochon Greek Key Ring, HONG KONG, SIZE 10 - $295 SOLD
14K Opal/Diamond Pendant, 8.61 grams - $1,600 On Consignment Ask Me About It If Intrested
Opal Rings
10K Opal Ring - 5 Carat Opal - Size 6.5 - 8.66 grams - $650
10K Yellow Gold Opal Ring, Size 6.75 - $425
10K Australian Opal Ring - Size 6.75 - 3.02 Grams - $225
14K Beautiful Yellow/Orange/Green/White/Black Stone Pendant - 13.71 grams - $475
10K Red Stone Ring, Size 6.25 - $115
Black Hills 925 Sterling Silver Bracelet With 12K Gold Leafs, 8” inches long, 20.28 grams - $150**
925 Sterling Silver - David Yurman Style - Ribbed Cable Link Style - 17” Inches Long - 19.50 Grams - $36
Wallace 925 Sterling Silver Ice Cube Grabber - 20.94 grams - 4” Inches Long - $35
925 Sterling Silver Turquoise Pawn Silver Bracelet - 22.6 grams - 2.5” Inch Bendable Diameter - $55
925 Turquoise Bracelet - 8.88g - $17.50
925 Turquoise Blue/Red Pendant - 4.9 grams - $12.50
925 Sterling Silver Corinna-Maria Jewelry Dog Pendant - $8
925 Italy Sterling Silver Necklace - 16” Inches Long - $7
925 India Sterling Silver Necklace - 16” Inches Long - $6
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet - 7” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - $14
925 Italy Sterling Silver Bracelet- 7” Inches Long - 7.36 Grams - $15
925 Sterling Silver Flower Earrings - 11.2 Grams - $16
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $30
925 Italy Sterling Silver Gold Plated Bracelet- 8” Inches Long - 15.07 Grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Beaded Bracelet - 8”Inches Long - $25
2 - 925 Mexico Taxco Sterling Silver Bracelet/Bangle - 2.5” Inch Diameter - $35/Each
925 Mexico TC-177 Bracelet Sterling Silver - Diameter 2-3” Inches Adjustable - 20.86 grams - $40
925 Sterling Silver Turquoise Pawn Silver Bracelet - 22.6 grams - 2.5” Inch Bendable Diameter - $55
Siam Sterling Silver Bangle Bracelet Etched Design Pattern - $55
925 Thai Sterling Silver Necklace with Black Gemstone Dress Pendant - 18.5” Inches Long - $15
925 Sterling Silver Necklace with Blue Stone Pendant - 17” Inches Long - $25
925 Sterling Silver Necklace With Pearl Pendant - 16” Inches Long - 22.42 grams - $40
925 Green Rock Ring, Size 8.75 - **$15
925 Sterling Silver Green Rock Moveable Ring - Size 6-6.25 - 7.41 grams - $20
925 Sterling Silver Ring - Size 7 - 13.62 grams - $20
925 Liquid Silver 30 Strand Necklace With 10 Strand Earrings - $60
925 Wells Sterling Silver Leaf Brooch - $8
925 Sterling Silver Leaf/Green Stone Brooch - 7.46g - $14
925 Sterling Silver Belt Buckle Blue/White/Red/Dark Blue - 24.87 Grams @ SPOT - $20.08
925 Sterling Silver Rose Pendant - $5
925 Thailand Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $5
Aspire 925 Sterling Silver - My Family Tree Pendant - $7
925 Mexico MM-34 Sterling Silver Heart Pendant - $15
Bell Trading Post Abalone 925 Sterling Silver Vintage Pendant 1936-1969 - $15
ATI Mexico 925 Sterling Silver Black Onyx Pendant - 22.18g - $30
Will Consider Trades for gold or silver on select items and offers are welcome as well
I accept PayPal Friends and Family, Zelle, Venmo, Cash App, Zelle, Google pay
Bitcoin and other crypto currencies now accepted
0-4 oz - $4 5-8 oz - $4.25 9-12 oz - $6 Priority shipping =$8, Stamped envelope - $1, medium flat rate box = $15
•Signature Confirmation $3 (Optional)
•Insurance is also available at buyers expense.
•I pack safely and discretely.
•Prices are subject to change at any moments notice.
•Message me if you have any questions.
•All packages will be dropped off on Tuesday or Wednesday.
•Once I drop the package at the post office I’m not responsible for USPS mistakes or losses
submitted by Redditaccount1543354 to Pmsforsale [link] [comments]

2020.10.19 03:23 Helen5808 This is gonna be a thing now

Understand the Context.
The voyage by Christopher Columbus in 1492 that connected the Eastern and Western hemispheres led to the first global trade networks. They provided the framework for historical events for the following centuries.
Establishment of Maritime Empires. Between 1450 and 1750, European states, starting with the Portuguese and Spanish, sought a transoceanic route to Asia. Europeans established trading post empires in the Indian Ocean that
inadvertently brought them into contact with the Americas.
Global Exchanges. Trans-Atlantic trade linked the Americas, Europe, and Africa for the first time. European colonists who wanted sugar and other crops to sell in the global market developed plantations in the Americas. Their desire for laborers fueled the trade in enslaved Africans. Trans-Pacific trade flourished as well. Silver mined in Latin America was the major commodity.
Over time, the transfer of crops, animals, and disease between the Eastern and Western hemispheres, known as the Columbian Exchange, altered life everywhere. The introduction of potatoes, corn, and tomatoes to Europe led to population growth. The introduction of deadly pathogens, such as small pox and measles, devastated the populations of the Americas.
Change and Continuity. Within the context of increasing European influence, regional commerce and established states in Afro-Eurasia continued to flourish. The Mughal, Ottoman, and Qing Empires expanded, creating ethnically diverse states. Across the globe, peasant and artisan labor intensified as the demand for goods and food increased. These developments set the stage for the revolutions that defined the period after 1750.
Technological Innovations.
The sailors, moreover, as they sail over the sea, when in cloudy weather they can no longer profit by the light of the sun, or when the world is wrapped up in the darkness of the shades of night, and they are ignorant to what point of the compass their ship's course is directed, they touch the magnet with a needle which (the needle) is whiled round in a circle until, when its motion ceases, its point looks direct to the north.
- Alexander Neckham (1157-1217).
Essential Question: How did cross-cultural interactions spread technology and facilitate changes in trade and travel from 1450 to 1750?
Although land-based empires were important during this period, various inventions allowed Europeans to venture long distances on the ocean. The magnetic compass, originally created in China for fortune telling, helped steer a ship in the right direction, as described by Alexander Neckham. The astrolabe, improved by Muslim navigators in the 12th century, let sailors find out how far north or south they were from the equator. The caravel, a small, three-masted sailing ship developed by the Portuguese in the 15th century, allowed sailors to survive storms at sea better than carlier-designed ships. Cartography, or mapmaking, and knowledge of current and wind patterns also improved navigation
Demographic pressures pushed Europeans into exploration and trade. As the population grew, not all workers in Europe could find work or even food. Not all sons of the wealthy could own land because primogeniture laws gave all of each estate to the eldest son. In the carly 17th century, religious minorities searched for a place to settle where people were tolerant of their dissent. All of these groups, as well as those just longing for adventure and glory, were eager to settle in new areas. Those who left their homelands in search of work, food, land, tolerance, and adventure were part of a global shift in demographics.
Developments of Transoceanic Travel and Trade
Europe was never totally isolated from East and South Asia. The Indian Ocean trade routes had long brought silk, spices, and tea to the Mediterranean by way of the Red Sea. Islamic traders had long known of land routes from China to the cities of Baghdad and Constantinople and from there to Rome. Then, in the 16th century, more and more Europeans became active in the Indian Ocean, with hopes of finding wealth and new converts as their twin motives.However, Europeans faced competition from Middle Eastern traders based in kingdoms such as Oman. For example, the Portuguese set up forts in Oman but were repeatedly challenged by attempts to remove them. The Omani- European rivalry was one reason for Christopher Columbus's search for a new route to India.
The voyages by Columbus connected people across the Atlantic Ocean.
European traders became go-betweens linking Afro-Eurasia and the Americas.
• From the Americas, they purchased sugar, tobacco, and rum.
• From Africa, they purchased enslaved people.
• From Asia, they purchased silk, spices, and thubarb.
This extensive trade transformed Spain, Portugal, Great Britain, France, and Holland into maritime empires, ones based on sea travel.
Much of this trade was carried out by men. However, in Southeast Asia, Europeans conducted most of their business with women, who traditionally handled markets and money-changing services in those cultures.
Classical, Islamic, and Asian Technology
Western European countries such as Portugal, Spain, and England were developing their naval technology. They were aware of traditions of sailing that went back to the classical Greeks, such as using the stars to navigate. They combined this knowledge with new ideas developed by Islamic and Asian sailors and scholars, which they learned about because of the cross- cultural interactions resulting from trade networks. Al-Andalus, in what is now Spain, was a place where Islamic ideas diffused into Europe.
The leading European figure in this development was Portuguese ruler Prince Henry the Navigator. While he never sailed far enough out to sea to lose sight of land, he strongly supported exploration. He financed expeditions along Africa's Atlantic Coast and around the Cape of Good Hope. With his backing, Portugal explore African coastal communities and kingdoms before other European powers.
Advances in Ideas. As scholars gathered knowledge, they improved the safety of sailing on the ocean. For example, Newton's discovery of gravitation increased knowledge of the tides. As a result, sailors could reliably predict when the depth of water near a shore would be decreasing, thereby exposing dangerous rocks. As people kept increasingly accurate records on the direction and intensity of winds, sailors could sail with greater confidence.
Improvements in cartography also improved navigation. An astronomical chart is any map of the stars and galaxies. Mariners relied on these maps to guide ships' direction, especially before the introduction of the compass, using the skies to help them determine their location. Ancient astronomers in Babylonia and Mesopotamia had created star charts as early as the 2nd millennium B.C.E. Charts by Chinese astronomers date back to the 5th century B.C.E. Charts were also used widely by classical Greek astronomers. Using telescopes to help create astronomical charts began in 1609, and the practice was widely used to map the stars by the end of the 17th century. Astronomers typically divided the charts into grids to help locate specific constellations and astronomical objects.
Advances in Equipment. Several developments in the equipment used on ships made sailing safer and faster than ever. Ships moved adroitly, aided by a new type of rudder, another idea imported from China. The astrolabe, improved by Muslim navigators in the 12th century, allowed sailors to determine how far north or south they were from the equator.
The compass is the primary direction-finding device used in navigation. It works either with magnets or a gyroscope, which is a wheel or disk mounted to spin rapidly around an axis in various directions. Other compasses determine the location of the sun or a specific star. The magnetic compass, originally invented in China, allowed sailors to steer a ship in the right direction. It is the oldest and most familiar. It was discovered by mariners in both China and Europe in the 12th century. This type of compass works as Earth itself acts as an enormous bar magnet. Earth's magnetic field is almost parallel to the north- south axis of the globe, which means that freely moving magnets, such as those in a compass, take on the same orientation.
The lateen sail, or a ship sail in the shape of a triangle, was a pivotal piece of technology. Used by Arab sailors and in the Indian Ocean, it significantly affected medieval navigation and trade. The ancient square sails that preceded the lateen allowed sailing only in a single direction and had to be used with the wind. The lateen, however, could catch the wind on either side of the ship, allowing it to travel in different directions. When used with the square sail, the lateen allowed sailors to travel successfully into large bodies of water, including oceans, for the first time, thus expanding trade routes.
New types of ships also improved trade. By adjusting the ratio of length to width of a ship, adding or reducing the number of masts, and using different types of sails, builders could adapt ships to improve their efficiency. (Connect: Compare the technological advances of the Mongols and Chinese of the 12th and 13th centuries with those in the chart below. See Topic 2.1.)
Three Types of Ships. See graph.
Long-Term Results. The long-term result of combining navigational techniques invented in Europe with those from other areas of the world was a rapid expansion of exploration and global trade. About the only part of the Afro- Eurasia world not affected by the rapid increase in global trade was Polynesia, since it was far removed from trading routes.
The introduction of gunpowder, another Chinese invention, aided Europeans in their conquests abroad. Soon enough, however, sea pirates also used the new technology, particularly the Dutch pirates known as Sea Beggars.
In North Africa and in the trading cities along Africa's east coast, Islam spread rapidly as a result of the growth of the Abbasid Empire, centered in Baghdad, and the activities of Muslim merchants. Interactions among various cultures inside and outside of Africa brought extensive trade and new technology to the continent.
Navigational techniques continued to spread throughout the 17th century. Russia's Tsar Peter the Great visited Western Europe in 1697 to observe military and naval technology. His interest in European technology led him to hire technicians from Germany and elsewhere to help build Russia's military and naval power.
submitted by Helen5808 to u/Helen5808 [link] [comments]

2020.10.10 03:17 Swamp_Justice Power Thumbing: What Thumbs Reveal About Politicians

Take a moment and look at this. Obama had the annoying habit of pointing with his thumb when he spoke. It used to drive me up the wall. Old Wild Bill Clinton did the same thing. Something has bothered me about it. I now think I have figured it about.
Exhibit A: the thumb pointing of Obama:
Here’s another one: Exhibit B
Then, being the curious fella I am, I thought to myself: how does Trump use his thumb?
Here is Exhibit C: The Trump Thumb:
Here’s a couple more:
Here’s Trump Double Thumbing:
Now, what did you see? I will tell you what I saw. Obama’s thumb looks like a quail’s egg in a nest. It was also flaccid. It NEEDS the fist to support it. It’s a weak and frail looking thing.
By contrast, Trust’s thumbs stand high and erect. They are very rigid and look like they mean business!
I am not saying that Obama has a small dick while Trump has a huge dinosauric cock. But I will say that Trump has fucked a lot of super hot women over his life while Barry-O is dedicated to fucking a Sasquatch. People are even saying that Michelle used to be a guy, and that Big B is a homo. The only other chick that Barry may have rubbed his tiny dick up against is that white bitch he tried to date and who was talked about in one of Barry’s fictional biographies. That whole situation: lost, young Barry being fucked with by that angry white girl who hated her daddy so badly she fucked negroes... it was cringeworthy. It almost made me feel sorry for the cunt. Almost.
See, it someone is playing straight up, then you get a bead on him pretty quickly. I knew Trump was a cock hound long before he ran for president. If I had his money and power I would have fucked all those starlets too. On the other end of the spectrum you have Barack Obama. I do not know what the fuck he is all about. I am not sure if Michelle is a guy or just a hulking, ugly bitch. I know that if you were butt-fucking Michelle Obama and she suddenly clenched her ass really hard she would rip your dick clean off.
Has Barry ever sucked a dick? Probably. If you observe his body language it is impossible to miss that he is a limp-wristed fairy. It is entirely plausible that he and his choom choom high school buds got really high smoking pot, then the next thing you know somebody has a cock in his mouth. Then there is the dominos effect that follows. They sober up and look at it as a wild and crazy drug fueled experience. In reality, it was a sick choke-n-jerk.
BTW, Barry strikes me as one of those obnoxious assholes at an orgy who starts stroking or sucking a guy’s cock while he is not looking. For example, you are lying on your back 69-ing some bitch. She is on her hands and knees sucking your dick. Unseen by you, another guy walks over and sticks his cock in her face. She starts sucking it. You don’t know what’s going on because it’s dark and you are doing your thing. You notice that the dumb bitch quit blowing you. But then it suddenly starts back up, so you are cool.
Meanwhile, your bitch is into the new guy she started blowing while you were eating her out. Suddenly, she gets up and bends over doggy style while her new beau starts fucking her. This is a cozy affair, so she and the guy are like right there next to you, close enough that you reach out and start playing with her tits while she is being savagely pounded from behind.
Suddenly you realize that someone else is blowing you. You raise up and look because, you know, you are ready to fuck a bitch. Unfortunately, when you look you are struck by confusion. WTF?!? The the person blowing you raises up and smiles at you, revealing that it’s a guy with a beard.
THAT is the kind of guy Barack Obama is. He’s a dirty rat bastard that will unknowingly blow a guy at what is supposed to be a heterosexual orgy. I won’t get into orgy etiquette here, though I know some of you are wondering about how to properly respond in such a situation. I will just leave it at this: every orgy should lay out ground rules before hand so everybody knows what to expect. For example, in the big city it may be a breach of etiquette to grab the homo sucking your dick and repeated smash his face into the concrete until you knock all his teeth out of his head. However, where I live, if it is a strictly white hetero orgy (MF, FF, FFM, FMM, no mm) and a guy sucks your dick, then anything is fair game. The only thing up for consideration is where you are going to dump the body.
To conclude, Obama was once asked about the size of his dick. Here is how he responded:
By contrast, when Kayleigh McEnany was asked about the size of Trump’s massive pecker, she did this:
In other words, Barry is a couple inches while Trump is a good 16 inches. It’s no wonder Barry is always so fucking angry while Trump is happy-go-lucky.
submitted by Swamp_Justice to freeworldnews [link] [comments]

2020.10.07 06:37 Ok_Bumblebee_8970 How do I get past the insecurities of my childhood?

My Mom is 100% Columbian of entirely European descent and my Dad is 100% German and was born in Germany. I am white skin with brown eyes and dark hair. Growing up, my German side of the family looked at me as being less than my cousins because of my eye and hair color and sometimes not recognized me as white. I was let known in subtle yet consistent ways that I could never truly be my Father's child without blonde hair and blue eyes. It seems as if my Mom is more proud of me being 50% German than 50% Columbian. She always praised me for the height I inherited from my Father's side. She wants me to marry a blonde hair blue eye girl because "there is a good chance your child will have blonde hair and blue eyes." What's wrong with the eyes I actually have? I find a lot of different types of women attractive but I feel almost obliged to marry a blonde hair blue eye woman for 2 reasons. 1) Getting the validation I never received from my German Grandparents even though she is not my grandma 2) Making my Mom happy by maybe having a blonde hair blue eyed child. The blonde women my family seems to appreciate are generally difficult. I have been seeing a girl who is half Asian and she hopefully asked on a date, "Your Father is German? Blonde hair blue eyes?" and it was a turn off because it reminds me of this whole conundrum. I almost don't want to see her anymore because of this. How do I get past feeling like half of me is something special and the other half is meant to be thrown out or improved?
submitted by Ok_Bumblebee_8970 to raisedbynarcissists [link] [comments]

2020.09.29 15:24 portlane Judy Dunn (August 19, 1945 - September 16, 2020)

August 19, 1945 - September 16, 2020
Judy Ann Nalley was born in Hemet, CA, to Dee and Della Nalley, the fourth daughter and last child of their family. The family soon moved to Prineville, OR, where she spent her childhood attending schools in Prineville, graduating from Crook County High School in 1963.
In her early years, Judy was an avid swimmer and swim teacher. She had the grace and stamina that could have taken her onto competitive levels.
After high school, she became a nurse’s aide, working at the Vancouver Veteran’s Hospital in the mid-1960’s. She always felt she missed her calling by not pursuing a career in healthcare. But, her desire to have a family was greater than that calling.
She raised her children in Ridgefield, WA, then moved to Vancouver, WA soon after.
During those years, she found she loved learning to play the piano. A piano was always in her home until her passing, where Judy would tinker out Silent Night and some of her favorite hymnals.
As a mom, she was known as the “ice cream cone, cupcake lady,” surprising her kids’ classrooms with the treat to celebrate their birthdays. Judy was also a room mom, on the local womens soccer team, a softball coach and a Brownie leader during her kids schooling years.
Judy retired from SEH America. During retirement you would find her at game tables in the community room at her apartment. She did not meet a game she didn’t like. Judy did, however, let you know if you were too methodical and thoughtful when it was your turn to play. You were slowing her down from her next move and next game!
In the end, health issues caught up with her; her body was tired. It was a blessing that Judy was surrounded by the love and touch of her family and friends until the end.
Judy was a wonderful daughter, sister, mother, grandmother, aunty and friend to many. She never left a room of loved ones without saying “Shoo-Poo,” her cute way of saying “I Love You.” Judy will be sorely missed.
Judy is survived by her daughter, Tonya Olson (Mark); son, Jason Dunn; sisters, Norma Jacobs (Vince) and Alphadee Tucker; grandchildren, Cameron Clark, Alexandra Olson and Stephen Olson; and many nieces, nephews, great nieces and great nephews; and of course, her friends.
She was preceded in death by her father, Dee Nalley; mother, Della Nalley; and sister, Christine Halsey.
A special thank you to the Kaiser Hospice Team for all the help and support they gave the family while she was able to be at home during her passing.
A celebration of Judy’s life will be held at a later date when it is safe for those who loved her to gather and remember her.
Please share a memory @
submitted by portlane to deadpeoplepdx [link] [comments]

2020.09.21 05:35 candid_12567 Question to the Asian community

I want to ask respectfully. Please no one come for me lol. I am interested in learning and not trying disrespect anyone.
Do Asian people tend to stick or stay with in their own racial group? I am a Hispanic women married to an Asian man. We’ve been married for over 8 years.
I’ve noticed that my husband’s friends congregate with only Asian people with the exception of one white friend that hangs out once in a while. and me of course, because I happen to be married to their best friend.
In the beginning of the friendship, I noticed a lot of cliqueness within the group. They were always super close and I understand that it takes time to build close relationships with others. But this level of cliqueness after 10 years of know each other is strange to me. I still feel like the outsider.
Another thing I noticed is that they don’t really welcome different opinions or point of views. Not that I’m over opinionated lol. If they ask me what I think and my point of view differs, it’s met with disapproval. I’ve felt a little uncomfortable being myself or stating my point of view around them.
Also I’ve noticed that all his friends date and marry men/women who are Asian. For example one night his friend and I were talking about his dating life. I ended up telling him that I had a gorgeous Columbian friend that was single and thought they would hit it off. He basically got really quiet and acted uninterested. So I asked the question “have you ever dated any latinas?” He said I’ve only dated Asian girls.
Last thing I noticed not just from his friends but also from co-workers of Asian decent. Is that they are more comfortable around caucasian people. Typically I get a stand offish vibe but I sense that they more comfortable befriending either other Asians or whites. Is there a reason why befriending Caucasians is more important? Also why are you more reserved to other people color?
I have always surrounded myself with a diverse group of people. I never enjoyed closing myself off and only allowing Hispanic people into my life. I love people who think differently and come from different backgrounds than me. If you are chill than we can be friends..pretty much lol.
With that said, I think it’s important to state that I’ve also had a few friends who are Asian that were totally welcoming and sweet. So no I don’t believe that all Asians are cliquey. Unfortunately, from my own experience I’ve noticed that the majority are stand offish and do not welcome other people of color as warm as they do to white people.
Am I crazy for noticing this? Can someone educate me on why Asians tend to stay within their own racial group? Also is there something that maybe I’m doing wrong? I would like better understanding.
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2020.09.20 21:00 portlane Anna Vilhauer (November 12, 1924 - September 13, 2020)

November 12, 1924 - September 13, 2020
Anna Jane Westfall was born in Parma, ID on Nov. 12, 1924 and died in Vancouver, WA on Sept. 13, 2020. She grew up on a farm in Idaho, and when the family lost the farm, they lived in a tent with a dirt floor which she swept daily. As a teenager, she played on a semi-professional women’s softball team.
She eventually made her way to Vancouver where she worked in the cannery, as a seamstress at Jantzen, as a welder in the shipyards, and as a waitress at the Castle Restaurant. In 1949, she married Ervin “Ike” Vilhauer. They had kids and created a loving home life until Ike died in 1979. After that, she became a world traveler and a hole-in-one golfer, but she missed her husband every day.
She was an excellent seamstress and made beautiful clothes for her kids, their dolls and their bears. She was an avid reader, a passion that she passed on to her kids. She loved music by Gordon Lightfoot and Marty Robbins, the drive up the Columbia River Gorge, playing cribbage and pinochle and eating blueberries.
Ann is survived by her children and their spouses, Ron, Nancy (Terry), Russell (Sue), Debra, Kim (Joe), nine grandchildren, three great-grandchildren and one great-great-grandchild.
The date for a memorial service has not been set. In lieu of flowers, the family requests that you honor Ann by voting for Joe Biden.
Please share a memory @
submitted by portlane to deadpeoplepdx [link] [comments]

2020.09.05 03:29 StevenStevens43 The British Olduwan

The British Olduwan
Olduvai gorge:
One of the most important archaeological and anthropological sites in the world, in understanding the earliest known origins of Human-being, comes from a location known as Olduvai gorge in Tanzania, were Oldowan is thought to have first began evolving in to modern human, 1.9 million years ago.
Olduvai gorge
The Olduvai Gorge it has proven invaluable in furthering understanding of early human evolution.

Homo habilis, approximately 1.9 million years ago
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However, it is likely that Olduwan was born from inter-racial breeding
It appears one of the first things Oldowan man done, was go seeking for lands, perhaps a little cooler in temperature, as Olduwan, 1.8 million years ago first appeared in Georgia, Europe.
In fact, by 1 million years ago, Olduwan man had even turned up in the area that would be considered modern day London.
Pre-history of Europe
Homo erectus georgicus, which lived roughly 1.8 million years ago in Georgia), is the earliest hominid to have been discovered in Europe.
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Olduwan expansion
Other Oldowans headed for Indonesia.
Homo erectus in Indonesia by 1.8 million years
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1.5 million years ago, Oldowan man entered Russia, by the Caucasus, which leads in to Scandanavia from the Northern land bridge, which still exists today.
In 2006, 1.5-million-year-old Oldowan flint tools were discovered in the Dagestan Akusha region of the north Caucasus,
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China 1.35m years ago
Recent study shows that the stone tools found at Xiaochangliang site are magnetostratigraphically dated to 1.36 million years ago.[9]
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Return of Oldowan:
It would appear one of Olduwans descendants, likely returned to Africa around, 300,000 BC, via europe. Crossing the Gibraltar straits.
the Acheulean. Possibly the first hunters, H. erectus mastered the art of making fire and was the first hominid to leave Africa, colonizing most of Afro-Eurasia and perhaps later giving rise to Homo floresiensis.

The earliest known Homo sapiens fossils include the Jebel Irhoud remains from Morocco (ca. 315,000 years ago),[12]

Don't take offence:
Ok, now, it is likely that the first modern humans, are still around today, in the exact same form they were then. And today, they are classed as "intelligent modern humans".
They were likely, "the pygmy peoples".
The reason they were likely the same people, as todays pygmy peoples, comes from the knowledge that the Jebel Irhoud, were extremely small in size.
The Jebel Irhoud individuals also had very thick brow ridges and lacked prognathism.[18]
Link for photo
Now, anthropoligical studies pretty much prove, that the Magdalenians that inhabited mainland europe between 17,000 BC and the onset of the younger dryas, were the same people as Jebel Irhoud.
Period biology
The fauna of the Magdalenian epoch seems to have included tigers .
Magdalenian humans appear to have been of short stature, dolichocephalic, with a low retreating forehead and prominent brow ridges.
Link for photo
Magdalenian expansion
Cheddar man:
The map above does not attribute Southern parts of Britain, to have been colonialised by the Magdalenians, however Britains oldest known skeleton is Cheddar man, believed to be from around 9,100 BC, and also thought by anthropologists, to be black in skin colour.
Cheddar man
Cheddar Man is a human male fossil found in Gough's Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England. The skeletal remains date to the Mesolithic (ca. 9100 BP, 7100 BC) and dark or dark to black skin.[2]
Link for photo
The reason it would have been so easy for the Magdalene to colonise Thames valley, would be due to the fact that, not only would they have the brain capacity to cross the Gibraltar straits, they would also have the advantage of being able to cross the Doggerland land bridge, which had not sunk yet, until 6,500 BC.
Doggerland was an area of land, now submerged beneath the southern North Sea, that connected Britain to continental Europe. It was flooded by rising sea levels around 6500–6200 BC.
Link for photo
Pygmy peoples:
Pygmy peoples of today, can be found mostly in the Congo region of Africa.
They are a peoples which typically average a height of less than 4 ft 11.
Pygmy peoples
In anthropology, pygmy peoples are ethnic groups whose average height is unusually short. The term pygmyism is used to describe the phenotype of endemic short stature (as opposed to disproportionate dwarfism occurring in isolated cases in a population) for populations in which adult men are on average less than 150 cm (4 ft 11 in) tall.[1]
The term is primarily associated with the African Pygmies, the hunter-gatherers of the Congo basin (comprising the Bambenga, Bambuti and Batwa).[2]
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Pygmy peoples
Effacer le Tableau:
Whilst the only noticable difference between you, and a Pygmy person, is their small stature, and the fact that even today, they are hunter gatherers, despite some politically correct Scientists insisting that Pygmy peoples are not descended from Hunter gatherers, the Pygmy peoples have been the victims of repeated attempted genocides and extermination campaigns.
Most recently, January 2003.
Violence against pygmy peoples
From the end of 2002 through January 2003 around 60,000 pygmy civilians and 10,000 combatants were killed in an extermination campaign known as "Effacer le Tableau" during the Second Congo War.[27][28] Human rights activists have made demands for the massacre to be recognized as genocide.[29]
Link for photo
Baka dancers
Bantu master:
Even "today" the Bantu make no bones about the fact that they are the pygmy peoples "masters".
Perhaps it makes them feel big.
However even "you" have joined in, on Pygmy genocidal bullying, without even knowing it, or have you never used the term "mongo", in your younger years?
Mongo, is a pygmy language, aswell as a Pygmy location.
The word Mongo, should not be used disparagingly.
But unless you want to be part of a genocide campaign, you should also not ban the word from your vocabulary.
Simply use it, respectfully.
To put in to simple terms.
If a pygmy person went on the internet, and told everyone he was a Mongo, he would likely be banned, by a well meaning leftist, that does not realise that, this this person, really is from a village called Mongo, near congo, and speaks Mongo, and banning this person is about the most insulting and racial discriminative thing one could possibly do.
Reported slavery
In the Republic of the Congo, where Pygmies make up 2% of the population, many Pygmies live as slaves to Bantu masters. The nation is deeply stratified between these two major ethnic groups. The pygmy slaves belong to their Bantu masters from birth in a relationship that the Bantus call a time-honored tradition. Even though the Pygmies are responsible for much of the hunting, fishing and manual labor in jungle villages, Pygmies and Bantus alike say that Pygmies are often paid at the master's whim: in cigarettes, used clothing, or simply not paid at all.
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Pygmy language centres
Discimination against pygmy peoples is not new.
Pygmy peoples, even recently, have been sent to live in zoo cages next to Lions and Tigers, and many people view Pygmy peoples, as Paleolithics.
Even in the USA, as early as 1907, they were viewed as a circus act, alongside animals.
Systematic discrimination
Historically, the pygmy have always been viewed as inferior by both colonial authorities and the village-dwelling Bantu tribes.[15] Pygmy children were sometimes captured during the period of the Congo Free State, which exported pygmy children to zoos throughout Europe, including the world's fair in the United States in 1907.[15]
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Pygmy person in Bronx zoo cage 1906
Pepi II:
Even as far back as 2297 BC, a 13 year old Egyptian pharoah named Pepi II, took great delight in capturing a pygmy person, and bragged about to everyone in Egypt.
The Egytians begged him not to kill the pygmy person, but instead bring the Pygmy person back to Egypt.
Likely to be used for entertainment purposes.
Early years of Pepi II's reign
Sent to trade and collect ivory, ebony, and other precious items, he captured a pygmy. News of this reached the royal court, and an excited young king sent word back to Harkhuf that he would be greatly rewarded if the pygmy were brought back alive, where he would have likely served as an entertainer for the court.
Link for photo
But what do we learn from this?
We learn that modern humans from 300,000 BC had the potential to be extremely literate, intelligent, and that the idea that even Olduwan may have been an Ape, is simply misguided ancient discrimination and racism, and was genocided, quite simply because he was too stubborn to give up his traditions, and likely lacked physical build in order to stick up for himself against bigots that likely wrongfully viewed him as an illiterate fool.
However Pygmy peoples are regarded by Scientists, as modern humans.
And pygmy peoples, such as Iymeru, have been in even the highest positions of the ancient Egyptian empire.
Iymeru, was the second most powerful man in Egypt, during the 13th dynasty.
He was the Pharoahs vizier.
So much for Pepi II's circus act.
Iymeru was an ancient Egyptian vizier) in office during the 13th Dynasty.
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Indian pygmies:
However, there is a twist in the tale.
It appears more likley, that the magdalenian Pygmies, "were not" in fact the same pygmy peoples as todays Congo contingent, but in actual fact, were more likely Indian pygmies.
The African pygmies likely took the long way round the world, instead of going directly across the Gibraltar straits.
South east Asia
Frank Kingdon-Ward in the early 20th century reported a tribe of pygmy Tibeto-Burman speakers known as the Taron inhabiting the remote region of Mt. Hkakabo Razi in Southeast Asia on the border of China (Yunnan and Tibet), Burma, and India.
Link for photo
Indian Pygmy
The reason it was more likley Indian pygmies, than African pygmies, comes from the fact that there is plenty more evidence, which i will reveal later, of Indian descended people, having colonised Europe, and even America.
Not only this, one of the most common languages in todays world, is Indo-European.
Indo-European likley was a language that evolved over thousands of years, likely in stages, and likley due to pro-longed exposure to one anothers culture.
Indo-Aryan first arose in the Levant around the time of the ancient egyptian empire, when Indians and Aryans colonized lower egypt.
Indo-European evolved when Indo-Aryans invaded India during the battle of the ten kings in 1400 BC.
Though, it was likley that the Aryan language, already contained certain Indo components, by the time the colonized Egypt, and those were probably picked up from the Magdalenian period, when Aryans likely had to invade european mainland to escape the polar ice-caps, and integrated with Megdalenians.
Though, Indian genes in the northern hemisphere even pre-dated the Magdalenians, which i will cover later, so it is also likely, that when the Aryans invaded european mainland, and integrated with Magdalenians, their Aryan language already contained Indo components.
We can also see by the photo of the Philippino girl, how Anthropologists could mistake Cheddar man for being black.
This is due to the fact, that Indians, "are" descended from Africans, so, in a round about way, the Magdalenian "are" African pygmies, though not as directly as one would first think.
It is likley that the Magdalenian arrived in europe via India.
Though they likely made their escape, over the Gibraltar straits, the place were it all began.
Saudi Arabia:
Whilst it is actually likely, that modern day human was already living in Scandanavia, and even european mainland, as far back as 300,000 years ago, it is most probably that any evidence of this, was washed away during the younger dryas, when both Britain and Scandanavia, lay under polar ice-caps.
But the first "recorded" movement of modern day humans, comes from 75,000 years ago when Africans first entered the Arabian peninsula.
A 2011 study found that the first modern humans to spread east across Asia left Africa about 75,000 years ago across the Bab-el-Mandeb connecting the Horn of Africa and Arabia.[56]
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Arabian expansion
Modern human, from the Arabian peninsula, arrived in India, sometime between 80,000 and 60,000 years ago.
"Modern human beings—Homo sapiens—originated in Africa. Then, intermittently, sometime between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, tiny groups of them began to enter the north-west of the Indian subcontinent.
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As Israel was in Mesopotamia, Africans travelling to the Arabian peninsula, Indonesia, or anywhere else, would have no other option than to go through the Levant, making Israel one of the earliest populated areas by modern human.
120,000 years ago.
And almost definitely Black African.
The oldest fossils of anatomically modern humans found outside Africa are the Skhul and Qafzeh hominins, who lived in the area that is now northern Israel 120,000 years ago.[85]
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Neanderthal man:
The best evidence of what Neanderthal man looked like, comes from very well preserved remains of Neanderthals found in Shanidar cave in Iraq.
The remains were thought to be from between 60,000 and 80,000 years ago, and they do point to a slightly different culture sharing the lands of Mesopotamia, with Africans.
Iraq pre-history
During 1957–1961 Shanidar Cave was excavated by Ralph Solecki and his team from Columbia University, and nine skeletons of Neanderthal man of varying ages and states of preservation and completeness (labelled Shanidar I–IX) were discovered dating from 60,000–80,000 years BP.
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Neanderthal man
Neanderthals got a bad rap.
There is no doubt Neanderthal was Asiatic.
And do you remember Pepi II? That wonderful African pharoah that delightfully hunted down a "pygmy" when he was a boy? Well, this African also took great delight in carrying on the honoured age old African tradition of "smiting" Asiatics.
Well racism and discrimination is actually quite prevalent within the ancient egyptian dynasties, and an ancient old traditional practise of native egyptians smiting inferior Asiatics, can be traced back to 3000 BC, during the reign of Den.
The depiction even included a "bearded" foe.
The picture shows Den in a gesture known as "smiting the enemy". In one hand Den holds a mace, in the other hand he grabs a foe by his hair. Thanks to the braids and the conic beard the foe has been identified as of Asian origin. The hieroglyphs at the right side say "first smiting of the east".
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Smiting asiatics
Now, i am hoping i no longer have to go in to too much detail about how, in actual fact, Scientists now think Neanderthal man was likely literate, and actually extremely intelligent.
In fact, intelligent Africans "would not" interbreed with an idiot.
And Neanderthal man did breed with other humans in this area.
In fact, breeding with Neanderthal man, is likely where Africans gained a bit more bulk from, by breeding with a person that is derived from Northern sub grouos, that have grown to be a bit bulkier in bulk, in order to with stand the cold winters.
He also likely was 50/50 in providing the components that would later evolve in to the AfrAsian language, that is spoken by Semites, and Arabians, as well as some Africans, but nobody knows were it evolved from.
Neanderthal technology is thought to have been quite sophisticated.
Compared to modern humans, Neanderthals had a more robust) build and proportionally shorter limbs. These features are often explained as adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate,
Neanderthal got cornered in Spain:
Now just like the previous two groups, Neanderthal, being from european mainland, and who still exists today, got cornered in Spain, by this new anatomically modern human-being.
Inter-group relations
Canadian ethnoarchaeologist Brian Hayden calculated a self-sustaining population which avoids inbreeding to consist of about 450–500 individuals, which would necessitate these bands to interact with 8–53 other bands, but more likely the more conservative estimate given low population density.[31] Analysis of the mtDNA of the Neanderthals of Cueva del Sidrón, Spain, showed that the adult three men belonged to the same maternal lineage, while the three adult women belonged to different ones. This suggests a patrilocal residence (that a woman moved out of her group to live with her husband).[233] However, the DNA of a Neanderthal from Denisova Cave, Russia, shows that she had an inbreeding coefficient of ​1⁄8 (her parents were either half-siblings with a common mother, double first cousins, an uncle and niece or aunt and nephew, or a grandfather and granddaughter or grandmother and grandson)[83] and the inhabitants of Cueva del Sidrón show several defects, which may have been caused by inbreeding or recessive disorders.[218]
Link for photo
Anatomically modern people:
Now, do you remember the Magdalenians from earlier in this post?
Well here is a photo of Anatomically modern people.
Early modern human
Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH)[2] are terms used to distinguish Homo sapiens (the only extant human species) that are anatomically consistent with the range of phenotypes seen in contemporary humans from extinct archaic human species. This distinction is useful especially for times and regions where anatomically modern and archaic humans co-existed, for example, in Paleolithic Europe.
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Early modern human
Neanderthal did not get wiped out:
The early modern human however, did not wipe Neanderthal out.
They shared european mainland with other literate human-beings.
Some of those human-beings, particularly the ones from Britain, that at this point in time, is just a part of Eurasia, probably looked more like this.

Western neanderthal
Now, Neanderthal not only spread out from Mesopotamia along European lines, and escaped via Spain, but also along Northern lines, before escaping in to Canada via the Bering land bridge, that was around at the time.
However, the remains are no longer considered to be that of Neadnerthal, but in fact, that of Denisovan, the ancestor of Australian aboriginals, as well as Inuits and Paleo-Indians in America, and others.
That Russia was also home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals was revealed by the discovery of the partial skeleton of a Neanderthal infant in Mezmaiskaya cave in Adygea, which was carbon dated to only 29,000 years ago.[6] In 2008, Russian archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of Novosibirsk, working at the site of Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains of Siberia, uncovered a 40,000-year-old small bone fragment from the fifth finger of a juvenile hominin, which DNA analysis revealed to be a previously unknown species of human, which was named the Denisova hominin.[7]
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Now, it is likely that Paleo-Indians lived in europe, relatively peacefully, with one another.
At least until the younger dryas, when blond haired blue eyed Aryans from Scandinavia had to invade European mainland.
It is likely what happened during this period, is Aryans became less friendly, and forced Anatomically modern humans to flee via Spain, go and live in the Northern regions and peripheries as Eskimos in Iglus, or go and breed with the current Indigenous peoples of America and Australia and update their DNA.
When the Ice-caps melted, Scandinavians likely returned to Scandinavia, and pushed the Sami people farther and farther north, until they could go no farther north, and to this day, there is a peoples in the most Northern regions of Scandanavia and Russia that regard themselves as the indigenous peoples of Scandinavia and Russia.
They are called the Sami peoples.
You have likley heard of them, without realising it.
They are Laplanders.
The place Santa Klaus is from.
Sami people
The Sámi people (/ˈsɑːmi/; also spelled Sami or Saami) are an indigenous Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large northern parts of Norway, Sweden, Finland and the Kola Peninsula within the Murmansk Oblast of Russia. The Sámi have historically been known in English as Lapps or Laplanders. Sámi ancestral lands are not well-defined. Their traditional languages are the Sámi languages which are classified as a branch of the Uralic language family.
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Sami peoples
Indigenous Americans:
The Indigenous colonisation of the Americas happened in two waves.
The first was between 57,000 BC and 17,000 BC.
However a Polar Ice wall prevented the first arrivals from prevailing any farther than Alaska.
Migrations in to the continents
Alaska was a glacial refugium because it had low snowfall, allowing a small population to exist. The Laurentide Ice Sheet covered most of North America, blocking nomadic inhabitants and confining them to Alaska (East Beringia) for thousands of years.[53]
Second wave:
Just as the Polar ice wall in Alaska was beginning to melt, and the ice-caps began shifting towards Britain and Scandinavia, the Aryans likely came down from the Northern lands, and many Paleo-Indians likely fleed across the melting Bering land bridge and got over just in time, to breed with Indigenous Alaskans, and populate the Americas.
Canada pre-history
The first inhabitants of North America are generally hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago.[23]
South America:
Obviously some Paleo-Indians made it over the Ice-wall prior to the second wave arriving, as archaeologists are of the belief that South America saw it's first arrivals around 16,500 BC.
Pre-columbian era
The earliest archaeological evidence from human settlement in South America comes from Monte Verde (possibly as early as 16,500 BCE).[11]
Until the arrival of the Spanish during the Columbian era, Paleo-Indians would have been pretty isolated, with not too much opportunity for evolving, so the 1500 AD perfectly intact mummified Inca sacrifice, would give a good clue as to what the Paleo-Indians that arrived 14,000 years ago, or even 57,000 years ago, looked like.
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Inca sacrifice
The Australian aboriginals have a similar ancestry.
The fact that modern Australian aboriginals have the exact same ancestors as US Indigenous peoples, and were hunter gatherers when Aryans first arrived in Australia, despite making crossings on land bridges on two seperate sides of the globe, is pretty much suggestive that early modern anatomical Indonesians inhabited most of the globe, and were very much literate. And modern, and they in turn were likely descended from a mixture of Israeli Neanderthal and Afro pygmy persons.
Human habitation of the Australian continent is known to have begun at least 65,000 years ago,[45][46] with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia.[47] The Madjedbebe rock shelter in Arnhem Land is recognised as the oldest site showing the presence of humans in Australia.[48] The oldest human remains found are the Lake Mungo remains, which have been dated to around 41,000 years ago.[49]
At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies.[53
The Paleo-Indonesians even found their way to Greenland by 2500 BC.
Early Paleo eskimo cultures
In prehistoric times, Greenland was home to several successive Paleo-Eskimo cultures known today primarily through archaeological finds. The earliest entry of the Paleo-Eskimo into Greenland is thought to have occurred about 2500 BC.
And the photo just goes to show, the farther North you get, the whiter you get, as ones skin evolves to adapt to the cold.
And when you get even farther north, the redder you get.
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Greenlandic Inuit couple
But, the point is, that blond haired blue eyed Aryans almost definitely pre-dated the younger dryas, and they moved southward, and any trace of their previous existence was wiped out by one of humanities greatest ever Cataclysms when an entire sub-contentent, and an Island, was cut in half from manland europe.
All this happened between only 6500 and 11,000 BC.
The northward movements that have been attributed to the populating of Britain and Scandinavia, and the sudden appearance of white blue eyed people, was actually a "re-population", and they already lived in those lands previous to that.
They had lived and evolved in those lands, ever since Oldowan turned up in the Thames valley 1 million BC, and 1.5 million BC in Russia.
But until the younger dryas came and wiped any history of them out, they had no real reason to make any significant appearance on european mainland, were archaeological evidence would be preserved.
And that is why the first archaeological evidence of white man only appears after and during the Younger dryas.
However britain was likely not originally inhabited by pure Aryans.
Pure Aryans likely began colonising Britain only after the Northward migrations.
And even then. they likley shared the Island with Greekish looking people, as well as possibly even remnants of Indonesians, and the place likely got divided after Doggerland sank, and Scandinavians eventually began adding Britain to their North sea expansion.
Likely beginning around 3000 BC, with the invention of their Hjortspring boat.
Bronze age
Thousands of rock carvings from this period depict ships, and the large stone burial monuments known as stone ships, suggest that ships and seafaring played an important role in the culture at large. The depicted ships most likely represent sewn plank built canoes used for warfare, fishing and trade. These ship types may have their origin as far back as the neolithic period and they continue into the Pre-Roman Iron Age, as exemplified by the Hjortspring boat.[43]
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2020.08.16 15:05 portlane Barbara Shuford (July 24, 1931 - July 26, 2020)

July 24, 1931 - July 26, 2020
On July 26, 2020 after a long battle with cancer, Barbara Jean (Vincent) Shuford entered into her Eternal Rest, joining her husband, Hugh. She left behind many friends and family who will miss her dearly.
Jean was born July 24, 1931 in Nampa, ID to Ray and Opal Vincent. She spent her early years in Nampa with her older brother, Donald and in 1942 she moved with her family to Portland, OR where Ray began working in the shipyards.
They only lived in Portland a short while and in November 1942, moved to a new house on the Heights in Vancouver, WA. Jean liked to tell the story of going to Montgomery Wards in Portland to buy furniture for their new house and how proud her mom was of her electric stove.
Jean attended Hough Elementary School. In 1943, Jean was in the first seventh grade class at McLoughlin Junior High School (Mac Hi to the students). She started high school at Ogden Meadows in 1946 and attended there until the school burned down in July 1948. Even many years after the fact, Jean considered this a tragedy.
She attended Vancouver High School her senior year and was quite popular, being selected a Song Queen and the Senior Prom Queen. Jean graduated in 1949.
Following high school, Jean attended Clark College for a year and worked at the Abstract Company in Vancouver.
In 1951, she met Hugh Shuford, a young airman at the Portland Air Force Base. Jean and Hugh married in 1953. After the birth of their son, David, they moved to Marshall, TX where Hugh completed his Bachelor’s Degree and their son, Mark, was born.
The family returned to Vancouver in June 1956 and set up housekeeping on the Heights. Jean was living in Vancouver during the Vanport flood of 1948 and vowed she would always live on a hill.
Jean began her 30-year career with the Vancouver School District when David and Mark were attending elementary school. She started as a teacher’s aide at Walnut Grove Elementary, working at Minnehaha as well. Jean worked in the office at Mac Hi while David and Mark attended there, allowing her to keep an eye on her two boys. She finished her career at the Central Office, and was recognized for her diligent work ethic and willingness to help out whenever needed. Jean retired in 1992.
While being courted by Hugh, Jean began attending Vancouver’s Calvary Baptist Church. They were long-time members of Calvary. Jean sang in the choir and was involved in Sunday School. Jean and Hugh made many lifelong friends at Calvary, and treasured time spent with them.
Jean and Hugh were bitten by the cruise bug and following their retirement, could be found on ships bound for Alaska, the Panama Canal, Hawaii, the Baltic Sea and many other locations.
Jean was active in the local Red Hat Society and helped organize regular meetings of the “Meadows Ladies,” a group of women who had attended Ogden Meadows.
Jean is survived by her two sons, David (Debby) of Richland, WA and Mark (Marcia) of Portland; two grandchildren, Kristina McCormick (Jason) and Robert Shuford (Andrea). Jean also had three great-grandsons, Nathan, Teddy and Charlie, who were very dear to her. Jean is also survived by her brother, Donald of Vancouver, as well as several nieces and nephews.
Hugh, her husband of 66 years, passed away in 2019.
Jean was a strong, caring wife, mother, grandmother and friend. We will miss her stories of seeing FDR when she was a child in Idaho, of being selected prom queen, and her early days working as a teacher’s aide (especially her time as a playground monitor).
Jean was a shopper par excellence and her skill with coupons and the sale rack oft times resulted in Meier and Frank almost having to pay her for the clothes she found!
A celebration of Jean’s life will be scheduled at a later date. In lieu of flowers, the family requests donations to the breast cancer charity of your choice.
Please share a memory @
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2020.08.12 21:05 portlane Shirlene Buckmiller (May 19, 1951 - August 1, 2020)

May 19, 1951 - August 1, 2020
Shirlene was born in Portland, OR to Douglas and Shirley Harding. She had three siblings; Glenn (Pat), Ken (Nancy), and Jillene (Dan).
A resident of rural Vancouver, she graduated from Evergreen High School in 1969. In 1973, Shirlene graduated from Central Washington University with a BA in Education. She also completed her graduate work at CWU.
Her first teaching assignment was for West Valley (Yakima) for 22 years. After student teaching in Apple Valley in the spring, she was hired as a 3, 4, 5 teacher in the fall and 14 years later moved to Wide Hollow and then Cottonwood to teach first and second grade. Shirlene then taught first grade in the Bend/LaPine School District for 16½ years. She took great pleasure seeing the motivation and enthusiasm the kids had for learning to read. Teaching introduced Shirlene to so many great people who became ex-students and parents who are now lifelong friends. She loved to hear kids say please and thank you. With her humble and kind demeanor, she was a super role model for children.
A milestone in her life was meeting Ron (her best friend and love of her life) at the Dairy Queen in Vancouver in 1968. This was the start of a 52-year adventure of life. They were married on September 25, 1971. Kilee, who was born 11 years later. She brought so much joy, fun, love, and laughter to their lives. Their teaching careers allowed them to spend time together creating cherished memories.
Before late onset Muscular Dystrophy slowed her down, she enjoyed backpacking, running (finishing the Yakima Half Marathon), and her favorite family sport skiing.
Ron and Shirlene were traveling soul mates. The beauty of Augusta, the blue waters of the Caribbean, and trips to Hawaii, the Rose Bowl, and Nashville were her favorites. The mention of Lahaina always brought a smile. Family trips to Disneyland, state parks in Utah, Sunriver, and Las Vegas were very special times.
She was a dedicated football coach’s wife who spent 38 years of Friday night lights. After retirement and moving to Albany to be near grandkids, Maddie and Blake, she became a Beaver Believer. Tailgating at Reser was a special family event. She also enjoyed going to women’s basketball games at OSU.
Shirlene’s most defining moments were as mom and then “Grambie.” Her love and devotion to Ron, Kilee, Adam, Blake, and Maddie were limitless. From the smallest thing like fixing a sack lunch to the grandest of all (Christmas), Shirlene always displayed her creativity to those she loved. She was a superior decorator in all endeavors the yard, the home, holidays, special events, and birthdays; all displayed her love and the importance of family. Her summers were spent on her flower gardens and baskets.
Shirlene loved the sun whether at a pool or riding in a golf cart. She loved day trips to the beach. Her scrapbooking skills were used to make memorabilia for others.
Shirlene is survived by her husband, Ron; daughter, Kilee (Adam), and grandchildren, Blake and Madelyn.
At her request, a private celebration of her life and spreading of her and Ron’s ashes will be held by Kilee and her family at later date.
In lieu of flowers, donations may be made to St. Judes Children’s Hospital in Shirlene’s name.
Please share a memory @
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2020.07.22 22:10 Stevenasaurus We Are Operators Episode 1: The First Day

8:33 AM
Interview Room
Jay anxiously tapped his knees under the table as the interviewers shuffled several papers between each other.
They were two men and a woman. The men were a Kuranta and Forte while the woman was a Liberi like Jay. Jay resisted the urge to scratch his chin, a ritual of his whenever he wanted to think. He believed it would only hurt him in the interview as he needed to project confidence and certainty in every answer.
He went from tapping his knees to squeezing his legs which were squishy, making him smile. The squeezing eventually became a massage which made him close his eyes and relax.
“Are you ready to begin?” the Liberi woman's voice called.
Jay opened his eyes and nodded confidently. “Yes, I'm ready.”
His pupils moved subtly so he could look at the clock. It read 8:37 AM.
Was I out for a minute or two?! Did she call on me more than once?! he thought to himself.
“Please state your information for the tape,” the Forte man said after pressing a button on the camera sitting on their table.
Jay straightened up. “Jay Dresmal. Date of birth: February 23rd . Place of birth: Columbia. Race: Liberi. Combat Experience...”
Jay choked up on the combat experience. Technically, he didn't have any at all but knew a less than flattering interview would send him back to the supermarket he worked at in Columbia. He quickly brushed back his blue and black hair with his hand and returned to sitting up straight.
“Two months...” Jay said. Not wanting to lie too much but still wanting to at least have something on the board.
“Could you tell me more about your two months of experience?” the Kuranta interviewer asked.
Jay bit his lip and looked straight at the Kuranta man. He had rehearsed for this yet he was fumbling the play. As soon as the Kuranta man's brow was raised, Jay knew he had to make his move to maintain the semblance of confidence.
“It's more spread out in four years but if you condense all the incidents together you'd get around two months,” Jay explained. “I worked at a grocery store in a rough part of my city belonging to a small chain that didn't really give a damn about customer satisfaction or even safety. While that's pretty bad business, it also meant we were able to do a lot to thieves. I worked loss-prevention for a bit and being in a rough part of town, I saw my fair share of knives.”
The interviewers whispered among themselves. Jay worried the answer wasn't good enough or that they saw through his bluff.
“Tell us more about the supermarket you worked at,” the Liberi interviewer said.
You're kidding me! I'm training for battle! Not to be a cashier or stock boy!
Out of all the questions he prepared for before coming today, the last thing he expected was to talk about his previous job.
“Well... uh... it was a grocery store job...” Jay struggled to say.
The Forte interviewer wrote something down. “Maybe begin with your daily routine. What do you do when you first get there?”
“Well I arrive an hour before opening so that I can check the place out for any signs of burglary or in case there's some bad guys waiting nearby to rush us when we unlock the doors. Then for most of the day my manager would have me walk around and look out for any thieves since we somehow lost more to theft than expiry or damages,” Jay explained.
I'm going to work in the ship's store aren't I?
“Do you have any techniques on catching or preventing thefts?” the Kuranta interviewer asked.
Jay nodded. “Nobody really pays attention to the giant bulb mirrors on the ceiling so I like to be nearby and watch how someone acts. Even when a thief's alone in the aisle, they still look around before doing it. A lot of the times I just greet people since it scares a lot of the amateurs or first-timers since they think I'll remember their face.”
Why am I telling them all this? If anything, I'm just making the case for myself to work in the ship store. If there's a god, don't make me cashier. Make me a stock boy at least!
“Do you remember any incidents of combat you can recall in detail?” the Liberi interviewer asked.
Jay clenched his fists, knowing a question like this was his time to shine. “March 18th . I caught someone trying to steal candy. I thought he was a kid but it turned out to be a middle-aged man who pulled out a knife! Without even thinking, I grabbed the nearest thing I could use for a weapon: a baguette from a nearby display basket. Since my weapon was longer, I kept my distance and smacked the guy down good until he dropped both his knife and candy before making a dash out of the store with me behind him, still waving around my baguette which was broken from hitting him so many times!”
The interviewers chuckled. Jay restrained himself from smiling and waited patiently for the interviewers to finish writing. After they were done, they returned to whispering among themselves. They took their time in their deliberations which began to worry Jay. Then, the Liberi interviewer shook her head.
What does that mean?! Stay calm, Jay... The fact I'm even sitting down for an interview means I'm being considered.
“I think we've heard enough,” the Forte interviewer said.
That's all?! I have so many more answers ready! God above, I've only just started to believe in you but throw me a bone here!
“I'm ready to receive your judgment...” Jay said in a downtrodden tone.
“We'd like to offer you a slot in the Vanguard training program,” the Liberi interviewer said.
Jay let out a scream that he immediately cut off within a second. He regained his composure and smiled.
“I accept. But may I ask why?” Jay asked.
The Kuranta interviewer nodded. “Your routine of arriving early at your place of work to scout the place out fits well with the job description of a Vanguard. Your observational skills and the information you can gather will be useful for other operators arriving at the scene to assist you.”
“Welcome to Rhodes Island, Operator Jay,” the Forte interviewer said.
“You may leave now; we'll send the contract to your assigned dorm,” the Liberi interviewer instructed.
Jay stood up and bowed his head before leaving the interview room. He headed down the hallway with a skip in his step before entering one of the main corridors on the base and falling to his knees and looking up at the ceiling.
“There. Is. A. God!” Jay screamed.
“Ugh, who's the creep? Is he new?” A Lupo girl in a logistics company uniform asked her companion, a pinkish-red haired Sankta girl.
The Sankta girl got behind the Lupo girl and pushed her forward with both hands. “Just keep walking, Tex. Don't make eye contact.”
Jay choked on his own spit when he realized everyone was looking at him.
11:36 AM
Training Facility
Jay wiped the sweat off his brow as he finished with his physical examinations. As much as he wanted to know his scores, he'd have to wait for the results to be processed and submitted to his personnel file.
Running, weights, agility tests, and so many more physical activities had taken their toll on Jay. He had yet to be assigned to a dorm so the only thing he could do was walk around the base instead of relax. His curiosity lead him to the shooting galleries next door where several operators were practising with guns, crossbows, and bows. After taking ear protection from a bowl and inserting them in his ears, he entered the range.
The operators closest to the entrance were two Sankta, one with a pistol and the other with a crossbow. Jay decided to approach them, considering they looked to be the most fresh out of the operators on the range.
“When you get your gun, it's gonna be sweet. Nothing feels better than pulling the trigger and getting that kickback from the recoil,” the Sankta with the pistol said.
“Well I still have a long way to go before I get mine. Although, I heard they're pretty expensive,” the Sankta with the crossbow said.
Jay waved his hand as he approached, catching the attention of both Sankta. “Hey guys, the name's Jay, I'm new around here. Just finished with my physical tests.”
“Hello! I'm Adnachiel. I'm a few months in but I still consider myself new,” the Sankta with the crossbow greeted with a smile.
“Eddron, sniper class,” the Sankta with the pistol said while waving it around which made Jay uncomfortable. “I did my physicals a few hours ago so I guess I'm new too.”
“Eddron! What did I tell you about waving your firearm around?!” an angry voice that Jay recognized as Drill Instructor Dobermann's called.
Eddron stood up straight and quickly placed his gun on the counter overlooking the shooting range. “Sorry, Drill Instructor Dobermann! It won't happen again!”
“If I catch you practising improper firearm handling on the range again, I'll make sure your weapon's in a place it won't be handled improperly again. I'll leave you to figure out where that is,” Dobermann threatened.
Eddron instinctively reached for his butt and nodded with an expression of fear.
“Jay, I didn't expect you to associate with such a recruit,” Dobermann said.
“I-I-” Jay struggled to speak. “I was just saying hello to Eddron and Adnachiel.”
“I'd be careful of Eddron. The last thing I want for you is to get your head blown off because he's too eager to use the gun he's only recently gotten certification to use,” Dobermann warned.
“I will keep that in mind, Drill Instructor Dobermann. Thank you,” Jay said.
Dobermann smiled and nodded at Jay before returning back to her position watching the range.
Adnachiel laughed. “I remember when I got my first lashing from Dobermann. It just means you're one step closer to being an actual operator. Anyways, I gotta head out, my squad mate Cardigan needs me to help her find our captain. I'll see you guys later.”
Jay and Eddron waved goodbye to Adnachiel and were left alone together with Eddron's pistol still on the counter.
“I've never fired a gun before,” Jay said, breaking the silence.
Eddron picked up his gun and kept it pointed down the range. “The Five-SeveN, badass little thing with ambidextrous safety controls and a twenty-round magazine. Pretty sweet huh?”
“You sure know a lot about it,” Jay said.
“Spent days reading about all the guns before I got mine. Might've ended up on a list or something but I guess it was worth it in the end. I wanted a shotgun since I saw this really cool dude with one a few months back but I could only get my pistol certification,” Eddron said while admiring his pistol.
A few rows down from the two was a feline girl who was also shooting a pistol. She was taking her time between each shot and took even longer to aim down the sights.
Eddron nudged Jay on the elbow. “Check this out.”
Eddron walked over to the feline girl and stood behind her. Jay had a bad feeling and stayed close enough to the two to be able to hear them both talk.
“Jessica, huh? Cute name. Lemme show you how it's done,” Eddron said while pointing his gun down the range.
Eddron fired a few shots at the target. If his intention was to hit a bullseye, or even have all the bullets hit the target paper, he failed miserably as only one shot even made it to the sheet while being nowhere close to the dead centre.
“Sorry, you distracted me with your feline charms,” Eddron said in what Jay assumed was supposed to be a passionate and stoic tone.
Jay's mouth went agape as Eddron continued moving forward with his advances despite the signals not to.
This guy's a total sleazeball! Take a hint dude!
“Jessica!” a female voice called.
Two women, a Vulpo and Vouivre joined Jessica and Eddron. The two women were decked out in military-grade gear and the Vouivre specifically had a menacing aura to her.
“Liskarm and I were gonna go grab lunch, care to join us?” the Vulpo asked.
Jessica quickly nodded and left the range before her two companions could even move.
The Vulpo turned around to leave but paused and then looked back at Eddron before gesturing with her head. “Liskarm.”
The Vouivre didn't say a word and stepped into the same booth as Eddron and fired a shot down the range. Her aim was true as the bullseye ripped open from a bullet hole. She fired four more shots, waiting each time for the bullet to hit the bullseye before firing again. When she was done, she clicked back on the safety of her weapon while the Vulpo wagged her finger at Eddron before they both made their departure.
Jay whistled and acted like he wasn't a part of the conversation. Once the two were gone, Jay joined Eddron in his booth. Instead of a look of fear that Jay expected, Eddron was smiling.
“They all dig me,” Eddron said with a satisfied tone.
“You kidding? They wanted to kill you. What was up with that flirting anyways?” Jay asked.
Eddron put a hand over his heart. “What'd it look like I was doing? I was chasing some tail, man.”
This guy's an even bigger scumbag than I thought!
“You're just here for the girls? Are relationships even allowed here?” Jay asked.
“Oh they're allowed,” Eddron said affirmatively. “They tack on a few restrictions to you and your partner when you declare it to HR but it's definitely allowed. Trust me bro, I've done my research.”
“You don't have a girl back home or something?” Jay asked.
Eddron pantomimed spitting on the floor in disgust. “I've been totally turned off Sankta girls thanks to my sister Aecoria. Can't even talk to a Sankta girl without thinking she's my sister. It's kinda like that science dude who said every son wants to sleep with his mom or something, but like kinda different.”
“You're kinda losing me, bud,” Jay said.
“Besides, Sankta girls are so vanilla. No tail, no fluffy ears or badass horns. What's there to enjoy?” Eddron said..
Oh my god this guy keeps getting worse and worse!
“What about you? You got a girl?” Eddron asked.
“Oh! Uh! Yeah! Back home in Columbia! She went to a different school... Enough about me! What's your plan to win the hearts of the ladies here?” Jay answered, flustered.
“Once I become the top sniper, the tail'll be chasing me,” Eddron said while taking his pistol and spinning it on his finger along the trigger guard before holstering it.
“Eddron! What did I tell you?!” Dobermann screamed as she cracked her whip.
“Oh shit!” Eddron yelled as he grabbed Jay and held him in the path of the whip.
Jay closed his eyes and braced himself as the whip approached. The last thing he saw was a look of terror on Dobermann's face as the whip shot at him like a missile. A tightening grip that burned took him by the throat and pulled him to the ground face first, his nose smashing straight on the floor which caused blood to rush out.
11:57 AM
Jay sat patiently on the bed as he could hear the bustle of doctors, medics, and researchers scurrying about the infirmary behind the curtain that secluded him. It reminded him of the hospital back home.
After some time, a Zalak girl with short hair tied into a bun wearing a medical mask and lab coat threw open the curtain and closed it behind her. She pulled down her mask and eyed Jay for a moment. Jay had to admit, she was cute.
“Hiya! How may I help you today?” the girl asked.
“Aren't you a doctor? Why don't you look at the sheet?” Jay asked.
The girl looked around the room for a bit before taking the clipboard next to Jay. “Ah, I see you need your nose to get checked out and also do a followup on your preliminary medical examination I get it now.”
I'm not getting good vibes from this girl.
“Alright, let's get started...” the girl said while looking through a cupboard.
“Uhh... I'm Jay...”
“Hiya, Jay. I'm Labcoat, named because I wear a labcoat. Very simple name to remember, yes?” Labcoat greeted while looking through another cupboard.
“So are you actually a doctor?” Jay asked.
Labcoat chuckled. “Of course not. But I swear I'm on the medical team so you're in good hands.”
If you're on it, you're on it. Why the need to swear it?
“Here we go,” Labcoat exclaimed to herself while pulling out a stethoscope.
She put the earpieces in her rodent ears and hovered the other end of the stethoscope over Jay's nose, not even touching it.
“Hmm... Your nose appears to have suffered some damage,” Labcoat said.
“The dried blood under my nose wasn't obvious?” Jay asked.
Labcoat shrugged and went back to scrounging through the cupboards. “Could've been someone else's.”
“Are... are you really part of the medical team?” Jay asked, not hiding the doubt behind his voice.
Labcoat giggled as she pulled out a syringe in a sterile wrapper. “Oh stop with the jokes already. If I wasn't medical staff, how'd I get my hands on a lab coat, eh? They don't just give these out to anyone ya know.”
“What's that for?” Jay asked, looking at the syringe.
“Uh... it's for your injury of course. Why don't you leave things to the professional? Just sit back and relax,” Labcoat said with a smile as she tore off the syringe's wrapper.
God above, save me.
Jay swallowed a lump in his throat. Labcoat walked over to him with a joyful stride which terrified him even more.
“Can I get a second opinion on my injury?” Jay suggested.
“Are you doubting me, Jay? I know we just met and all but that really hurts ya know?” Labcoat said while pouting.
Now I feel bad.
Jay quickly thought of a new strategy. Just like with the thieves back home, a good look in the eyes would be more than enough to break the facade. Before Labcoat could do something, Jay took her wrist and looked at her eyes.
“Labcoat. Tell it to me straight. Are you really in the medical team?” Jay asked sternly.
Labcoat froze. She pulled herself away from Jay as her lips quivered and her eyes scrunched up. The girl fell to her knees and brought her head to the floor as if she were praying.
“Please don't rat me out, I beg you,” Labcoat pleaded, sniffling throughout her begging.
I've seen videos that started like this.
Jay felt bad for making her cry and patted the empty space next to him. “There there. You wanna talk about it?”
Labcoat nodded and scurried up onto the spot next to Jay.
“I'm not on the medical team...” Labcoat said.
“So what class are you? Supporter? Specialist?” Jay asked.
“Guard,” Labcoat answered.
She's a guard?!
Jay coughed to hold back the fact he was totally shocked at Labcoat's class. “Aren't the guards the cool kids on the block? Why impersonate a medic?”
“I guess guards are cool and all. But I always wanted to be a doctor when I grew up. But there was no way I could afford med school, they also probably wouldn't be comfortable with an infected student either so I thought getting an internship at Rhodes Island would be my ticket to the Hypocritical Oath,” Labcoat explained.
“So you're infected huh? Also, I don't think it's called that...” Jay said.
“It's not?” Labcoat asked.
This girl's hopeless...
“How'd you end up as a guard?” Jay asked, steering the conversation back into place.
Labcoat shrugged. “No idea really. My interview was a few hours ago, but I honestly can't remember what I said. I must've really messed up since a guard's kinda the opposite of a medic, don't ya think?”
“Ha ha,” Jay laughed. “So it's your first day too? My interview was like three hours ago. Thought I was a goner but I like to think there's someone up above watching over me.”
Labcoat paused and squinted at Jay. “Oh my gosh! You're the guy that was screaming about god in the corridor!”
Jay choked on his spit and looked away from Labcoat. He saw his face on the reflection of some medical equipment which showed he was turning red while Labcoat laughed.
“Sorry, it was pretty funny how everyone looked at you. So... are you gonna rat me out?” Labcoat asked, her long thin tail wagging around.
“Nah, but maybe you should stop,” Jay warned.
“Yeah... I guess you're right,” Labcoat said.
A set of shoes appeared in the slot between the curtain and floor. Labcoat gasped and pulled up her mask and stood up from the bed.
A young Sarkaz girl with purple hair carrying a staff threw open the curtain. “Wait a minute. Who're you?”
“I'm an intern,” Labcoat answered, making her voice a bit deeper.
“What's your name?” the Sarkaz girl asked, getting closer to Labcoat.
Labcoat held up her finger a moment as if she was going to entertain the question before immediately dashing out.
“Wait! Ugh... I gotta ask Dr. Kal'tsit if she recognized that one,” the Sarkaz girl muttered to herself.
Jay cleared his throat which prompted the Sarkaz girl to turn around and smile at him.
“Sorry about that! My name's Hibiscus! I'll be assisting you with your medical needs today!” the girl greeted.
“Hi... I'm Jay,” Jay greeted back.
“Hmm... you look like you need some Electrolytes. I'll whip you up some of my signature energy drink real quick before we conduct the checkup!” Hibiscus said cheerfully.
Jay smiled. “Actually... that sounds really nice. Thank you.”
“You're gonna love it!” Hibiscus cheered.
12:46 PM
Jay struggled to walk up to the stack of trays at the front end of the cafeteria counter. His stomach had unpleasantly emptied itself from both digestive orifices after drinking Hibiscus' energy drink. With his stomach holding nothing inside, he needed something to eat and something to wash away the last remaining bits of vomit taste in his mouth.
The food was exotic with a banner above the counter saying it was Kjerag Food Day. In the kitchen, several cooks were moving about, carrying giant metal trays or working stoves and ovens. One cook in particular, a well-built Forte man in black seemed to be garnering the attention of several female operators as he gracefully prepared meal after meal.
The man was quite handsome but Jay focused his attention on grabbing a plate and using the giant spoons in the food trays to get himself a bit of everything from curry rice to grilled steak covered in spices from the Kjerag borderlands. At the end of the line before the register was a refrigerated tray with drinks and Jay took a small carton of chocolate milk to finish off his lunchtime ensemble.
The girl at the register showed Jay his total and presented him with a device that needed him to insert his Rhodes Island cash card into. Jay fumbled around his pockets for a moment until he found his wallet and brought out the card. When the transaction was complete, Jay took his tray and turned around to view the cafeteria.
The cafeteria was crowded with operators all around sitting at tables. There were some familiar faces to Jay like the logistics company employees who thought he was creepy and the girls in military-grade gear that threatened Eddron. But their tables were all full and they probably needed more time to forget who he was before he could go in for a second impression. All the other tables were crowded with various cliques ranging from established squads to people who were just from the same area or organization.
At the far end of the cafeteria was a feline girl sitting all by herself. Jay took his tray and walked all the way over to introduce himself and ask to sit. The girl had long hair that looked barely groomed and seemed to have never been cut as it ran down to her legs while the unkempt nature of it almost covered her feline ears. She was working on something as she had her phone on the table and was writing something on several sheets of paper while taking the occasional bite from her lunch.
“Can I sit here?” Jay asked.
The girl didn't look up from her work. “Sure.”
Jay smiled and sat down opposite of the girl and eagerly dug into the curry rice with his spoon. The rice practically melted in his mouth thanks to the curry and felt like he was eating heaven itself.
I could get used to this.
Jay sneaked a peek at the girl's work. Because the papers were upside down, it was hard to make out what she was doing but it looked intricate with diagrams and equations all over the sheets.
“So whatcha working on?” Jay asked with his mouth full of curry rice.
“A strategy,” the girl answered.
“Oh cool. Like what? A military strategy?” Jay asked, this time making sure his mouth wasn't full.
“Defeating my enemies,” the girl replied menacingly.
Great... another weirdo.
“Uhh... well, my name's Jay. Vanguard class,” Jay greeted while scratching the back of his head.
“Meeka. Supporter,” the girl replied quickly before returning her focus back to her phone and papers.
Jay opened his carton of chocolate milk and sipped on it. “So uh... who's the enemy?”
“The Demon King of Craglore,” Meeka answered.
You're kidding me.
Jay stood up from his seat and leaned over to get an actual look at what Meeka was doing. On her phone was a game where a team of heroes were fighting monsters in some reddish hellscape. Meanwhile on her papers, the equations themselves were drop rates on materials and numbers calculating which of her heroes would get the most out of a level up from her limited resources.
“Is that even a game if you're doing all this?” Jay asked.
“I spent eight hours rerolling which left me behind the pack. As long as I don't auto play the stages, I can advance faster and catch up,” Meeka answered eagerly.
“Looks like you're kinda stuck on that stage,” Jay said, watching the heroes on Meeka's game slowly get wiped out.
Meeka sighed. “Feraldis' s2 gives him 80% crit rate and it didn't even proc which screwed me. If I can just get him to crit, the other heroes in the turn order will do exactly enough damage to three star the stage.”
“Why don't you just power up your heroes and then come back?” Jay asked with a naive innocence.
“Did you seriously just ask me that?” Meeka asked, looking as if she was greatly offended. “Spending 15 energy to do an EXP stage means 15 energy I can't use on story stages. Most of the top players are already on chapter 9 and I'm only on 8-19! The gear on chapter 9 is infinitely better which will only make the top players more powerful in PVP!”
Jay shrugged. “Those top players probably spend a lot of money on that game. Do you even spend money?”
“I do,” Meeka answered.
Do I dare ask how much?
Jay scratched his chin. With his respect for Meeka draining by the second, it was probably a better idea to let sleeping dogs lie and not ask her how much she spent.
“So why join Rhodes Island if all you wanna do is play that game?” Jay asked while sipping on his chocolate milk.
“Money,” Meeka answered.
Jay almost choked on his chocolate milk. It was kind of funny how simple her answer was when most of the people in the cafeteria had intricate backstories and reasons to want to join.
Jay wiped his mouth and nose. “Well that's a reason I guess. Now you've got me curious, how'd you even get past the interview?”
“I mentioned I liked strategy and before I could finish and say games, they plopped me into a simulator to see my tactical skills. I mean, the simulator was like a game so it was a piece of cake. Decided to keep my mouth shut while I was ahead,” Meeka explained with a smile as she managed to beat the stage she was struggling with.
Alright, this girl's not a total lost cause.
“What does a supporter do anyways?” Jay asked while cutting his grilled steak with a knife and fork.
Meeka shrugged. “Beats me; I've only just got in the program. I guess I support my team.”
“I already had that part figured out,” Jay said, rolling his eyes.
“I've got a drone with a camera attachment back at my dorm so I dunno, I could help my teammates see stuff,” Meeka suggested.
“Wait, you've got your dorm assignment already?” Jay asked, putting his food down.
Meeka did something on her phone which prompted her to write several equations on her paper. “They posted them an hour ago, where were you?”
Jay looked down at the table and remembered his unpleasant trip to the bathroom. “Hanging around... Thanks for the heads up.”
Jay shifted his focus on finishing eating so he could head to the aircraft hangar to retrieve his belongings and be on his way to his dorm. Meeka didn't seem to mind the silence considering she was fully engrossed in her game.
1:22 PM
Dormitories, Level D, Room 35
Jay pulled his wheeled-luggage outside the door of his assigned dorm. The door wasn't locked which meant one of his roommates was probably inside. In his hurry to get to his dorm, he didn't take the time to see who else would be sharing the room with him and wondered if everyone was already in there waiting for him.
Jay swiftly opened the door to reveal the dorm. A giant Ursus man let out a yelp and fell behind the couch he was sitting on.
Is anybody on this damn ship normal?
“Uh! I found a penny!” the Ursus man urgently said with a deep voice as he emerged from behind the couch.
The man looked to be middle-aged, possibly even Jay's dad's age. His hair wrapped around his head and went along his cheeks to connect with a short beard off his chin which gave him somewhat of an authoritative image. The man was also incredibly tall, looking to be about a full head taller than Jay which would've made him incredibly menacing if not for his earlier yelp.
“Lungmen doesn't make pennies anymore,” Jay said, bracing himself for whatever weird shtick the Ursus man had in store.
“It's a Columbian penny!” the Ursus man retorted, his voice turning normal but still quite deep.
Jay sighed. “Buddy I was born and raised in Columbia.”
“An Ursus penny?” the man said with desperation in his voice.
Jay pulled out his issued phone. “I don't know anything about Ursus money but I can do a quick search right now.”
“Okay! You scared me... But you should've knocked before storming in like that!” the Ursus man said with a pout and crossed arms.
The dude's built like a tank but is scared of someone opening the door? No, I'm reading this fine specimen of a man wrong.
“You got assassins after you?” Jay asked.
The Ursus man shook his head. “No.”
“You on the run?” Jay asked, his hope dwindling by the second.
The Ursus man shook his head again. “No.”
“Then why were you scared?” Jay asked with a resigned expression.
“I just don't like sudden movements,” the Ursus man answered.
Damn it...
Jay sighed and inspected the room. It was a decently sized common area with a kitchen at the far left and the bedrooms and bathroom at the far right. In between were a couch and several seats along with a dining table with chairs near the kitchen.
“I guess I'll go pick a room,” Jay said to the Ursus man who got back on the couch to watch the television.
Jay pulled his luggage into the bedroom that was in the middle of the three. The room was pretty barren except for the bed and a drawer. It was bigger than his bedroom back in Columbia so it was more than perfect for him, especially since there was room for a work desk.
Jay left his luggage in his room so he could go back to the common area and check out the kitchen. On his way out, he noticed the Ursus man's bedroom door was open and took a peek inside to satisfy his curiosity. He noticed medals, trophies, and even a fur hat that carried a golden insignia that was probably significant.
Ah... I get it... this guy's been in wars and is suffering from trauma. Poor guy.
“Damn, that's a lot of medals. You a soldier or something?” Jay asked with a curious smile.
“Oh those? No, those are my father's,” the Ursus man answered.
“All of them?” Jay asked, still holding onto some hope.
“All of them. Although maybe one belonging to my brother could've slipped in there,” the Ursus man said with a shrug.
I had high hopes for you man...
Jay wasn't in the mood to check out the kitchen anymore and sat down on the couch with the Ursus man to watch TV. It was on the Rhodes Island Public Access channel and the current feature was an art show where a girl with glasses was painting something on a canvas.
“She paints so well,” the Ursus man said, smiling.
Jay scratched his chin and awkwardly looked around the room. “So what's the deal? Why are you such a scaredy cat?”
“You don't get scared?” the Ursus man argued.
“I do, but when someone comes in the door my first reaction isn't jumping behind the couch. Were you always this way?” Jay asked.
“Yes...” the Ursus man said softly while looking down at his lap. “I don't look like it, but I'm actually the heir to the Olovsky family.”
“How much of a big deal is that?” Jay asked, genuinely interested.
“The Olovskys have provided fine warriors and generals to the Ursus race for generations. I'm not the first disappointment in the family, but at least the other failures actually fought battles,” the Ursus man explained.
Jay slouched back on the couch. “So why are you here instead of back home in Ursus proving yourself?”
“I'm here to prove myself. Maybe I'd man up and fight for my country when it came to it. But imagine how much I could prove fighting for lands I don't call home and people I don't call friend? If I overcome my fears and build a reputation for myself, I will prove myself worthy to my father and prevent my brother from taking all of my inheritance. Those medals in my room are reminders of what I must be,” the Ursus man said passionately with a hand over his heart.
Jay was moved by the man's speech. Throughout the day he had met people with dreams and ambitions with the exception of Meeka and Eddron. Labcoat wanted to become a doctor and the Ursus man sitting next to him wanted to prove himself worthy of his lineage. It made Jay realize that now he was an operator, he didn't really have a goal for himself to strive for. The thought made him curl up on the couch and go quiet while scratching his chin.
Jay gently tapped his cheeks in quick succession to regain himself. “Well, my name's Jay. Pleasure to meet you.”
“Thank you, Jay. As for me, I have taken a name worthy of what I must become. I must be strong like rock and for that I named myself Alabaster, a Defender,” the Ursus man greeted.
“Isn't Alabaster kind of a soft rock?” Jay asked as he took out his phone.
“No it isn't,” Alabaster said in a desperate panic.
“Look here it is: Alabaster is a mineral or rock that is soft, often used for carving, and is processed for plaster powder,” Jay read.
Alabaster sunk his face into his hands. “I already filled out all the paperwork...”
I mean that name still kinda fits.
The door suddenly opened again which made Alabaster scream and jump behind the couch again. A medical gurney rolled into the room with Eddron laying on it while it was being pushed by a young pink-haired Cautus boy.
“Hey boys,” Eddron greeted weakly.
He better not be my roommate.
“Sorry for disturbing you, Eddron was too busy in the infirmary to come earlier,” the Cautus boy said.
“What happened?” Alabaster asked as he rose from behind the couch again.
“Dobermann made him exercise until his arms and legs gave out; he must've done something really bad to piss her off like that,” the Cautus boy answered.
That's what you get for using me as a shield.
“Boys, I can't move my arms and legs, can one of you guys help me into a bed?” Eddron asked, his voice sounding like he was sleepy.
“Allow me,” Alabaster said as he walked around the couch to get to the gurney.
With only one arm, Alabaster lifted Eddron and slung him over his shoulder. Jay watched in awe at the man's strength, feeling ashamed by proxy at how such power was being held by such a scaredy cat.
“Hey, Nurse Ansel, you're kinda cute. Let's exchange numbers,” Eddron suggested with a smile as Alabaster carried him into the final available bedroom.
Jay was about to speak up but stopped himself. As an act of revenge, he was going to let Eddron figure out things on his own.
Ansel seemed to notice Jay's attempt to correct Eddron and smiled. “He's on a few medications. Enjoy the rest of your day.”
Ansel bowed and took the gurney with him as he left the room. Once he was gone, Jay stood up and finally headed over to the kitchen to see things for himself. It was basic, only featuring a stove, fridge, some counters, and some overhead cabinets. Jay opened the fridge to see inside and found it was empty.
“The fridge is empty! I think I'm gonna check out the ship store and get us some stuff!” Jay called.
“Stay safe!” Alabaster called back.
2:58 PM
Ship Store
Jay could only walk around the aisles. There was everything he could ask for from food to household goods yet his shopping basket was empty as his mind had drifted as aimlessly as he was right now.
The store reminded him of home and the supermarket he used to work at. He remembered the times he would wander the aisles of his old store, dreaming of a life outside of a crummy apartment and part-time job. Now, he was wandering the aisles of this store, dreaming of a life beyond his achieved goal of operator.
Just like he was thinking back at the dorm, he remembered all the ambitions of those he met and how challenging they were. He could only imagine the feeling of accomplishment upon achieving those goals and knew right now, he had nothing like in store for him. In his daze, he almost bumped into another operator.
Jay snapped out of his trance and bowed his head. “I'm sorry.”
“No, I'm sorry,” a Perro girl replied while bowing her head.
The girl looked to be a couple years older than Jay. She had black hair that was tied neatly into a ponytail which contrasted heavily from the baggy sweater and pants she was wearing.
“Uh hey... I know this is a bit random... but say you recently achieve a goal of yours and now have nothing after. What do you do?” Jay asked.
The girl stroked her chin. “That's a really loaded question to give to a stranger. But I'd say just keep moving forward, as long as you're moving forward, you'll find something to strive for.”
“Wow... that was actually really helpful. Thanks... I'm Jay,” Jay greeted while extending an arm.
Finally, someone normal on this damn ship.
The girl extended her hand out. “I'm Spark.”
Jay received an electric shock the moment his fingers touched Spark's. He recoiled back while Spark laughed.
“Sorry, I'm a caster and my arts give a bit of a jolt,” Spark said, still giggling.
“Thank goodness I didn't bump into you,” Jay joked.
“So, are you new too?” Spark asked.
Jay looked at Spark. “How'd you know?”
“I'm kinda between goals as well. I kinda assumed you were like me and joined up in today's recruit wave,” Spark said.
“Pretty smart. So... keep moving forward, huh? Guess I'll try your advice out,” Jay said.
Jay took a few steps with Spark right behind him and arrived at the cereal aisle where he saw a box that caught his attention. On the box was a white-haired Kuranta police officer that he had seen on board on his way to the store. He took the box and read the name of the cereal, Gran-Flakes.
Jay looked around the aisle and spotted a relatively short girl with a black sweater that looked too big for her and a tool belt on her waist browsing. “Excuse me, miss, do you work here?”
“Miss,” the girl giggled, “I'm a lot older than I look. As for your question, not at the moment, but I run things around here when I do. Ada Church, Chief Engineer of Rhodes Island, you can call me Closure.”
“How did she end up on a cereal box?” Jay asked, pointing at the picture of Grani.
Closure proudly kept her hands on her hips. “Many products in the store feature operators. All the products here are made or imported from local vendors but the packaging is entirely made on Rhodes Island. So I thought it'd be nice if we recognized some operators' contributions by putting them on the products. In Grani's case, she did a good job during a mission to Kaizimierz awhile back.”
Jay looked at the box and admired the picture of Grani posing next to a bowl of cereal flakes with milk being poured into it.
“That's it! This is my new goal. I'm gonna get on a cereal box!” Jay giddily declared.
Closure and Spark stared at him blankly.
“Huh, I was kinda expecting for you to reach for the stars but I guess that's a start,” Spark replied with a shrug and smile.
submitted by Stevenasaurus to arknights [link] [comments]

2020.06.09 07:10 CambionClan Vampires Disappear, Replaced by Revenants

A few years back I thought of an interesting alternative setting for V:tM, I wanted to talk a bit about it and maybe get some feedback.
Centuries ago, all of the vampires disappeared for some unknown reason. Since then, what has arisen in their place has been the Revenant families. These families all have their legends of how their creators might have disappeared, but none know for sure. Over time, the families have grown into powerful organizations, having great wealth in the mortal world along with their own organizations and laws. To make things a bit more interesting, I beefed up the Disciplines and powers available to the Revenants a bit.

The Genos is an organization centered in Eastern Europe, made up of those families who once served the Tzimisce.
The Bratovitch are the most savage and perhaps inhuman of the Revenant families. For countless generations they have removed themselves from humanity, living in dilapidated manors deep within the woods, raising animals and living almost as animals themselves. Many members of other families see the Bratovitch family as more of a liability than an asset in the modern nights, though this bizarre family have proven their loyalty to the Genos time and time again and they are magnificent warriors, trackers, animal trainers, and scouts. In the modern era, what little wealth that these bestial Revenants might have had in the past has largely been lost and they are forced to do services for wealthier families in exchange for payment or simply live simple lives off the land or on old farmsteads.
This family has dedicated itself to pursuing wealth and gaining temporal power. Among their ranks are businessmen, lawyers, bankers, and others who pull the strings of modern society. They are a forward looking family who easily interact with mortals and stay up to date on current affairs, allowing them to become perhaps the wealthiest family in the modern era. On the downside, because they have married into powerful mortal families through the ages, the vampiric blood in their veins is a bit weaker and they have less supernatural potency than most of the other Revenant families.
The Khavi were once the fanatical servants of an ancient vampire that they considered a god. Worshiped this god and did his bidding without question. When the Masters disappeared, the high priests of this family continued to lead the younger members in worship, prophesizing that one day their god would return more powerful than ever before.
In the centuries since that time, the Khavi have continued to await the day that god would return, conducting strange ceremonies far away from the prying eyes of humanity. As part of an ancient tradition dating back millennia, the high priests or patriarchs of the family took many numerous wives from among the women of the family, including their own daughters. To show their devotion to their god, they sacrificed male infants, leading the Khavi family to be comprised almost entirely of women. It is said that the families high priests who rule today are so old that they still remember the days when the Masters trod the earth.
Despite the very patriarchal nature of the family, the Khavi are ironically one of the families where females have the most influence. As the ancient high priests are few in number and removed from the world, it is often their female children and grandchildren who run the practical affairs of the family. Few members of other families have even seen one of the patriarchs, they have become almost mythical.
Today, the Khavi cling to their old customs. Their crumbling estates are always near water, in the depths of marshes and swamps, and they rarely interact with anyone outside the family. Where they live there are always legends of strange encounters, of lost colonies of mad lepers, mutants or witches, of strange disappearances and curses. They commune with the spirits that dwell in the stagnant water and the moss-covered trunks, under the moist earth and in the mist-filled air, and offer them their own flesh and blood in maddening pacts for who knows what purpose.
The Obertus are a family of mysterious scholars and occultists. They are known not only for their libraries of ancient knowledge but also for their scientific endeavors and study of the strange mystical biology of Revenants. They also have a well known interest in experimentation on humans as well as supernatural creatures along with eugenics and breeding of sapient beings. The Obertus closely guard their secrets and are not only the mystics of the Genos, but information brokers as well. They are regarded as eccentric geniuses among the other families, for with their great minds also comes madness and obsession.
The Vlaszy were once a noble respected family. They served the Tzimisce and knights and warriors, pledging their loyalty to their vampiric lords to the death. After the disappearance of their masters and absorbing several smaller families, the Vlaszy continue to follow the traditions of honor and obligation that the family has values for generation upon generation. Now they act as not only warriors of the Genos, but as police, mediators, and judges as their reputation still stands high among the Revenant families. They are also highly valued as diplomats and messengers both between the Genos families and among outsiders.
A competitor with the Grimaldi for wealth and power. For the Zantosa family, are not a goal in and of itself but a means to achieve pleasure and debauchery. Members of this family seek out and indulge in every forbidden pleasure and also gain influence in helping the rich and powerful indulge in their own hidden desires. As time has passed, the Zantosa have slipped a bit in worldly influence, but are still considerably powerful.

The Onorata Società are another faction of Revenants, based out of Italy, they are descended from those who served the Cappadocians or Giovanni.
Long ago, the Dunsirn were a reclusive Scottish family of cannibals and brigands. As time passed they were able to amass great wealth and even legitimacy in the worlds of banking and business. They served the old masters as both muscle and money, now they maintain a high place in the Onorata Società, second only to the group's ruling family. They have great wealth and power, as well as a veneer of respectability, though they still practice cannibalism and other unwholesome family rituals on their private estates.
The Rafastio are an ancient family of witches who hale from northern Italy. They once loosely allied themselves with the Black Hand, but since the disappearance of the Masters, they have turned away from the Black Hand. The Leaders of the Black Hand would not tolerate this affront, especially since the Rafastio knew too many of their secrets, and have ruthlessly hunted the Rafastio ever since. The Rafastio, being an ancient family of mystics and haling from Italy just as the Rossellini did, formed an alliance and joined the Onorata Società, conditionally providing their mystical knowledge and abilities for access to some of the safety and resources that the Onorata Società could provide. They are still very secretive and like to maintain their independence, though they do their duty when called upon.
Known as the Rossius in ancient times, this family of potent Necromancers trace their lineage back to Ancient Rome. For many years they fought bitterly for rulership over the Onorata Società with another Italian Necromancer family, the Giovanni. The Rossellini were eventually victorious and the Giovanni fell from influence, leaving the Rossellini as the uncontested masters of Necromancy and the Onorata Società. While not as closely tied to the world of mortals as many other families, they make up for this with the potent command of Necromancy, their ability to acquire knowledge and information, and the ruthless will to use them to greatest effect.
Giovanni and the Minor Families
It is said that, among all the families chosen by the ancient masters, the Giovanni were the most favored. Many of them were given the Blood, and they grew out of their relatively humble merchant roots into what showed promise of a world power. Like many Italian merchants of the Renaissance, they even meddled in politics.
But all that came to an end when the Masters disappeared. Suddenly, the Giovanni were left without their protectors, and surrounded by enemies, specifically the Rossellini. Outcompeted by their rivals, the Giovanni fell hard, being forced to scatter in all directions and intermarry with minor families like the Putanesca. But the elders of the family swore vengeance. In the last several centuries, they have been crawling out of the gutter, not as merchants, but as political schemers and manipulators. They have wormed their way into the Masons, the Carbonarii, the Catholic Church, the Organized Crime families and many political parties, in Italy and elsewhere.
While the Rossellini stayed more or less true to their roots as Necromancers, the Giovanni family branched out and intermarried with a number of other families around the world, known either for their mystical abilities, great wealth and influence, or both. The most prominent of the minor families are the Giovanni, but there are many other minor families such as the Rothsteins, the Pisanob, the Putanesca, Milliners, and Della Passaglia. The Rothsteins are family with its fingers in organized crime, gambling, and banking. The Pisanob, a family which traces it's ancestry and master of Necromancy back to pre-Columbian Central America. The Milliners are a well connected American business and political family. The Puttanesca are a Sicilian crime family known for it's brutality. While the blood is quite among these minor families, collectively they are quite numerous, extremely wealthy, and influential both in the legitimate business world and the underworld of organized crime.
Because they have so spread out their blood across numerous families, the Giovanni have lost much of their old mystical puissance, but they make up for this with numbers, wealth, and connections.

The Black Hand
The Black Hand is a cult like affiliation of families who worship a group of the ancient masters, believing that one day they will return and rule the world. They are the most diverse group of Revenants, drawing families and members from all over the world. They see a utopic vision of the future when the ancient masters awaken and become gods of the world.
Once known as slavers and child snatchers, the Enrathi still handle the dirty jobs for the Black Hand. They assassinate enemies, intimidate victims, are involved in organized crime including the trade of sex slaves, and just as days of old - they capture children to become chatterlings. These children are no longer turned into vampires, but either raised as fanatical child soldiers in service to the Black Hand or used as breeding stock for expanding the numbers of the Black Hand families.
This strange family of mystics and madmen are said to fear the light of day as much as the ancient masters did. It has long been their desire to blot the sun from the sky and to do so they have been seeking out mystical knowledge over the centuries. Though not originally aligned with the Black Hand, they came to believe that by darkening the sun, they could reawaken the ancient masters and so they became incorporated this belief into the Black Hand cult dedicated to the greatest of the masters.
This family was once tied to the Genos, but betrayed them long ago and fled to the Black Hand for help. The Krevcheski were once known as skillful craftsmen, scholars, and engineers. Today, they still pride themselves on being well educated and skillful, providing a number of valuable services to the Black Hand - such as medical doctors, weapons and explosive experts, technicians, and computer experts. They also have access to stolen occult knowledge of the Obertus, something which has earned them to eternal enmity of that family.
Once a death cult who served the ancient masters as spies or assassins, they now lead the Black Hand as high priests. This secretive family knows maintains the ancient knowledge of their slumbering gods, ready to create a new church when they return to rule the world. They indoctrinate the children captured by the Enrathi in the faith and seek to spread their message to mortals of influence as well. They are still not above using treachery or assassination to deal with troublesome nonbelievers.
The Katayama are the only Revenant family to be created since the disappearance of the masters. They were created from some of the children captured by the Enrathi, using mystical knowledge which the Krevcheski took from the Genos before their betrayal. They are a weak blooded family with little mastery over supernatural abilities more common to Revenants, though they are also fanatically devoted to the Black Hand and increasingly numerous.

Independant Families
The Kairouan Brotherhood, now simply known as the Kairouan, was created to be spies, assassins, and thieves by their masters in the ancient days. Given large amounts of independence even before the masters' disappearance, the Kairouan now revel in their independence. They have no loyalty to any other organization, but instead sell their services to other Revenant families for the same purpose for which they were created - to gather information, sabotage, assassination, theft, reconnaissance, and other missions involving stealth.
The D'Habi are perhaps the oldest of the Revenants, dating back to the ancient middle east. They serve creatures which even the ancient masters feared, or worshipped, demons or children of the darkness. Adept at both dark sorceries and social manipulation, the D'Habi family seeks to gain worshippers for the dark gods while amassing temporal power and preying upon human sinfulness. Some members of this family easily move through high society, while others are too touched by their masters and must remain hidden from the prying eyes of humanity.
The Yiaroi, the Chosen
Once called the Servants of Anushin-Rawan, the Yiaroi live exclusively on the small Aegean island of Yiaros. They avoid embroiling themselves in the affairs of other families, maintaining strict neutrality and peaceful relations with others. Their island has come to be known as a neutral place where members of the other families can arrange for meetings or merely find solace. The other families have agreed to respect the neutrality of the Yiaroi through the years have mostly respected the island as a sanctuary where meetings can be held. In this way, the desire to stay out of family politics has allowed the Yiaroi to gain not inconsiderable influence. Many say that they have dark secrets.

There is a bit more, plus some rule issues, which I will spare you for now. Does anybody have any thoughts on this?
submitted by CambionClan to WhiteWolfRPG [link] [comments]

2020.04.09 08:56 MWiatrak2077 america

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.[g] At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), it is the world's third- or fourth-largest country by total area[c]. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 328 million, the U.S. is the third most populous country in the world. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago.[19] European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies led to the American Revolutionary War lasting between 1775 and 1783, leading to independence.[20] The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century—gradually acquiring new territories,[21] displacing Native Americans, and admitting new states—until 1848 when it spanned the continent.[21] During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the abolition of slavery in the United States.[22][23] The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power.
The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower. It was the first country to develop nuclear weapons and is the only country to have used them in warfare. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, the spaceflight that first landed humans on the Moon. The end of the Cold War and collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.[24]
The United States is a federal republic and a representative democracy. It is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), NATO, and other international organizations. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council.
A highly developed country, the United States is the world's largest economy by nominal GDP, the second-largest by purchasing power parity, and accounts for approximately a quarter of global GDP.[25] The United States is the world's largest importer and the second-largest exporter of goods, by value.[26][27] Although its population is 4% of the world total,[28] it holds 29.4% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.[29] Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, median income, median wealth, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity.[30][31] It is the foremost military power in the world, making up more than a third of global military spending,[32] and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.[33]
Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2.1 Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history 2.2 Effects on and interaction with native populations 2.3 European settlements 2.4 Independence and expansion (1776–1865) 2.5 Civil War and Reconstruction era 2.6 Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization 2.7 World War I, Great Depression, and World War II 2.8 Cold War and civil rights era 2.9 Contemporary history 3 Geography, climate, and environment 3.1 Wildlife 4 Demographics 4.1 Population 4.1.1 Major population areas 4.2 Language 4.3 Religion 4.4 Family structure 4.5 Health 4.6 Education 4.6.1 Higher education 5 Government and politics 5.1 Political divisions 5.2 Parties and elections 5.3 Foreign relations 5.4 Government finance 5.5 Military 6 Law enforcement and crime 7 Economy 7.1 Science and technology 7.2 Income, poverty and wealth 8 Infrastructure 8.1 Transportation 8.2 Energy 8.3 Water supply and sanitation 9 Culture 9.1 Food 9.2 Literature, philosophy, and visual art 9.3 Music 9.4 Cinema 9.5 Sports 9.6 Mass media 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Etymology See also: Naming of the Americas, Names for United States citizens, and American (word) The first known use of the name "America" dates back to 1507, when it appeared on a world map created by the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller. The name on the map applied to the lands of South America, in honor of the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci (Latin: Americus Vespucius).[34] After returning from his expeditions, Vespucci first postulated that the West Indies did not represent Asia's eastern limit, as initially thought by Columbus, but instead were part of an entirely separate landmass thus far unknown to the Europeans.[35] Then in 1538, the Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator used the name "America" on his map of the world, applying it to the entire Western Hemisphere.[36]
The first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq., to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort.[37][38][39] The first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776.[40]
The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the 'United States of America'".[41] The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be 'The United States of America'".[42] In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence.[41] This draft of the document did not surface until June 21, 1776, and it is unclear whether it was written before or after Dickinson used the term in his June 17 draft of the Articles of Confederation.[41]
The short form "United States" is also standard. Other common forms are the "U.S.", the "USA", and "America". Colloquial names are the "U.S. of A." and, internationally, the "States". "Columbia", a name popular in poetry and songs of the late 18th century, derives its origin from Christopher Columbus; it appears in the name "District of Columbia". Many landmarks and institutions in the Western Hemisphere bear his name, including the country of Colombia.[43]
The phrase "United States" was originally plural, a description of a collection of independent states—e.g., "the United States are"—including in the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1865.[44] The singular form—e.g., "the United States is"—became popular after the end of the American Civil War. The singular form is now standard; the plural form is retained in the idiom "these United States". The difference is more significant than usage; it is a difference between a collection of states and a unit.[45]
A citizen of the United States is an "American". "United States", "American" and "U.S." refer to the country adjectivally ("American values", "U.S. forces"). In English, the word "American" rarely refers to topics or subjects not directly connected with the United States.[46]
History Main articles: History of the United States, Timeline of United States history, American business history, Economic history of the United States, and Labor history of the United States Indigenous peoples and pre-Columbian history Further information: Native Americans in the United States and Pre-Columbian era
The Cliff Palace, built by ancient Native American Puebloans around 1190 AD It has been generally accepted that the first inhabitants of North America migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 12,000 years ago; however, increasing evidence suggests an even earlier arrival.[19][47][48] After crossing the land bridge, the first Americans moved southward along the Pacific coast[49] and through an interior ice-free corridor between the Cordilleran and Laurentide ice sheets.[50] The Clovis culture appeared around 11,000 BC, and is considered to be an ancestor of most of the later indigenous cultures of the Americas.[51] The Clovis culture was believed to represent the first human settlement of the Americas.[52] Over the years, more and more evidence has advanced the idea of "pre-Clovis" cultures including tools dating back about 15,550 years ago. It is likely these represent the first of three major waves of migrations into North America.[53]
Over time, indigenous cultures in North America grew increasingly complex, and some, such as the pre-Columbian Mississippian culture in the southeast, developed advanced agriculture, grand architecture, and state-level societies.[54] The Mississippian culture flourished in the south from 800 to 1600 AD, extending from the Mexican border down through Florida.[55] Its city state Cahokia is considered the largest, most complex pre-Columbian archaeological site in the modern-day United States.[56] In the Four Corners region, Ancestral Puebloans culture developed as the culmination of centuries of agricultural experimentation, which produced greater dependence on farming.[57]
A Native American Lecroy Point flint arrowhead, 9000-7000 BC Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the United States are credited to the Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historical Park, and Taos Pueblo.[58][59] The earthworks constructed by Native Americans of the Poverty Point culture in northeastern Louisiana have also been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. In the southern Great Lakes region, the Iroquois Confederacy (Haudenosaunee) was established at some point between the twelfth and fifteenth centuries.[60] Most prominent along the Atlantic cost were the Algonquian tribes, who practiced hunting and trapping, along with limited cultivation. The date of the first settlements of the Hawaiian Islands is a topic of continuing debate.[61] Archaeological evidence seems to indicate a settlement as early as 124 AD.[62]
Effects on and interaction with native populations Further information: American Indian Wars, Population history of indigenous peoples of the Americas, and Native American disease and epidemics With the progress of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[63] The native population of America declined after Europeans arrived, and for various reasons,[64][65] primarily diseases such as smallpox and measles.[66][67]
While estimating the original native population of North America at the time of European contact is difficult, an attempt was made in the early part of the twentieth century by James Mooney using historic records to estimate the indigenous population north of Mexico in 1600.[68][69] In more recent years, Douglas H. Ubelaker of the Smithsonian Institution has updated these figures.[70] While Ubelaker estimated that there was a population of 92,916 in the south Atlantic states and a population of 473,616 in the Gulf states, most academics regard the figure as too low.[68] Anthropologist Henry F. Dobyns believed the populations were much higher, suggesting 1,100,000 along the shores of the gulf of Mexico, 2,211,000 people living between Florida and Massachusetts, 5,250,000 in the Mississippi Valley and tributaries and 697,000 people in the Florida peninsula.[68][69]
In the early days of colonization, many European settlers were subject to food shortages, disease, and attacks from Native Americans. Native Americans were also often at war with neighboring tribes and allied with Europeans in their colonial wars. At the same time, however, many natives and settlers came to depend on each other. Settlers traded for food and animal pelts, natives for guns, ammunition and other European wares.[71] Natives taught many settlers where, when and how to cultivate corn, beans, and squash. European missionaries and others felt it was important to "civilize" the Native Americans and urged them to adopt European agricultural techniques and lifestyles.[72][73]
European settlements Further information: Colonial history of the United States, European colonization of the Americas, and Thirteen Colonies
Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall With the advancement of European colonization in the territories of the contemporary United States, the Native Americans were often conquered and displaced.[74] The first Europeans to arrive in the territory of the modern United States were Spanish conquistadors such as Juan Ponce de León, who made his first visit to Florida in 1513; however, if unincorporated territories are accounted for, then credit would go to Christopher Columbus who landed in Puerto Rico on his 1493 voyage. The Spanish set up the first settlements in Florida and New Mexico such as Saint Augustine[75] and Santa Fe. The French established their own as well along the Mississippi River. Successful English settlement on the eastern coast of North America began with the Virginia Colony in 1607 at Jamestown and the Pilgrims' Plymouth Colony in 1620. Many settlers were dissenting Christian groups who came seeking religious freedom. The continent's first elected legislative assembly, Virginia's House of Burgesses created in 1619, the Mayflower Compact, signed by the Pilgrims before disembarking, and the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut, established precedents for the pattern of representative self-government and constitutionalism that would develop throughout the American colonies.[76][77]
Most settlers in every colony were small farmers, but other industries developed within a few decades as varied as the settlements. Cash crops included tobacco, rice, and wheat. Extraction industries grew up in furs, fishing and lumber. Manufacturers produced rum and ships, and by the late colonial period, Americans were producing one-seventh of the world's iron supply.[78] Cities eventually dotted the coast to support local economies and serve as trade hubs. English colonists were supplemented by waves of Scotch-Irish and other groups. As coastal land grew more expensive, freed indentured servants pushed further west.[79]
European territorial claims during the mid-18th century A large-scale slave trade with English privateers was begun.[80] The life expectancy of slaves was much higher in North America than further south, because of less disease and better food and treatment, leading to a rapid increase in the numbers of slaves.[81][82] Colonial society was largely divided over the religious and moral implications of slavery, and colonies passed acts for and against the practice.[83][84] But by the turn of the 18th century, African slaves were replacing indentured servants for cash crop labor, especially in southern regions.[85]
With the establishment of the Province of Georgia in 1732, the 13 colonies that would become the United States of America were administered by the British as overseas dependencies.[86] All nonetheless had local governments with elections open to most free men, with a growing devotion to the ancient rights of Englishmen and a sense of self-government stimulating support for republicanism.[87] With extremely high birth rates, low death rates, and steady settlement, the colonial population grew rapidly. Relatively small Native American populations were eclipsed.[88] The Christian revivalist movement of the 1730s and 1740s known as the Great Awakening fueled interest both in religion and in religious liberty.[89]
During the Seven Years' War (in the United States, known as the French and Indian War), British forces seized Canada from the French, but the francophone population remained politically isolated from the southern colonies. Excluding the Native Americans, who were being conquered and displaced, the 13 British colonies had a population of over 2.1 million in 1770, about a third that of Britain. Despite continuing new arrivals, the rate of natural increase was such that by the 1770s only a small minority of Americans had been born overseas.[90] The colonies' distance from Britain had allowed the development of self-government, but their success motivated monarchs to periodically seek to reassert royal authority.[91]
In 1774, the Spanish Navy ship Santiago, under Juan Pérez, entered and anchored in an inlet of Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island, in present-day British Columbia. Although the Spanish did not land, natives paddled to the ship to trade furs for abalone shells from California.[92] At the time, the Spanish were able to monopolize the trade between Asia and North America, granting limited licenses to the Portuguese. When the Russians began establishing a growing fur trading system in Alaska, the Spanish began to challenge the Russians, with Pérez's voyage being the first of many to the Pacific Northwest.[93][h]
During his third and final voyage, Captain James Cook became the first European to begin formal contact with Hawaii.[95] Captain Cook's last voyage included sailing along the coast of North America and Alaska searching for a Northwest Passage for approximately nine months.[96]
Independence and expansion (1776–1865) Further information: American Revolutionary War, United States Declaration of Independence, American Revolution, and Territorial evolution of the United States
Declaration of Independence by John Trumbull The American Revolutionary War was the first successful colonial war of independence against a European power. Americans had developed an ideology of "republicanism" asserting that government rested on the will of the people as expressed in their local legislatures. They demanded their rights as Englishmen and "no taxation without representation". The British insisted on administering the empire through Parliament, and the conflict escalated into war.[97]
The Second Continental Congress unanimously adopted the Declaration of Independence, which recognized in a long preamble that their unalienable rights were not being protected by Great Britain. The fourth day of July is celebrated annually as Independence Day:[98] "... where, heretofore, the words 'United Colonies' have been used, the stile be altered for the future to the 'United States'".[99] In 1777, the Articles of Confederation established a decentralized government that operated until 1789.[98]
Map of territorial acquisitions of the United States between 1783 and 1917 Following the decisive Franco-American victory at Yorktown in 1781,[100] Britain signed the peace treaty of 1783, and American sovereignty was internationally recognized and the country was granted all lands east of the Mississippi River. Nationalists led the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in writing the United States Constitution, ratified in state conventions in 1788. The federal government was reorganized into three branches, on the principle of creating salutary checks and balances, in 1789. George Washington, who had led the Continental Army to victory, was the first president elected under the new constitution. The Bill of Rights, forbidding federal restriction of personal freedoms and guaranteeing a range of legal protections, was adopted in 1791.[101]
Although the federal government criminalized the international slave trade in 1808, after 1820, cultivation of the highly profitable cotton crop exploded in the Deep South, and along with it, the slave population.[102][103][104] The Second Great Awakening, especially 1800–1840, converted millions to evangelical Protestantism. In the North, it energized multiple social reform movements, including abolitionism;[105] in the South, Methodists and Baptists proselytized among slave populations.[106]
Americans' eagerness to expand westward prompted a long series of American Indian Wars.[107] The Louisiana Purchase of French-claimed territory in 1803 almost doubled the nation's area.[108] The War of 1812, declared against Britain over various grievances and fought to a draw, strengthened U.S. nationalism.[109] A series of military incursions into Florida led Spain to cede it and other Gulf Coast territory in 1819.[110] The expansion was aided by steam power, when steamboats began traveling along America's large water systems, many of which were connected by new canals, such as the Erie and the I&M; then, even faster railroads began their stretch across the nation's land.[111]
American bison grazing The Gateway Arch, in St. Louis, Missouri, was built in 1965 to commemorate the westward expansion of the United States.[112] From 1820 to 1850, Jacksonian democracy began a set of reforms which included wider white male suffrage; it led to the rise of the Second Party System of Democrats and Whigs as the dominant parties from 1828 to 1854. The Trail of Tears in the 1830s exemplified the Indian removal policy that forcibly resettled Indians into the west on Indian reservations. The U.S. annexed the Republic of Texas in 1845 during a period of expansionist Manifest destiny.[113] The 1846 Oregon Treaty with Britain led to U.S. control of the present-day American Northwest.[114] Victory in the Mexican–American War resulted in the 1848 Mexican Cession of California and much of the present-day American Southwest.[115] The California Gold Rush of 1848–49 spurred migration to the Pacific coast, which led to the California Genocide[116][117][118][119] and the creation of additional western states.[120] After the American Civil War, new transcontinental railways made relocation easier for settlers, expanded internal trade and increased conflicts with Native Americans.[121] For half a century, the rapidly declining buffalo struck an existential blow to many Plains Indians' culture.[122] In 1869, a new Peace Policy nominally promised to protect Native-Americans from abuses, avoid further war, and secure their eventual U.S. citizenship. Nonetheless, large-scale conflicts continued throughout the West into the 1900s.
Civil War and Reconstruction era Further information: American Civil War and Reconstruction era
President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, November 19, 1863 Differences of opinion regarding the slavery of Africans and African Americans ultimately led to the American Civil War.[123] Initially, states entering the Union had alternated between slave and free states, keeping a sectional balance in the Senate, while free states outstripped slave states in population and in the House of Representatives. But with additional western territory and more free-soil states, tensions between slave and free states mounted with arguments over federalism and disposition of the territories, whether and how to expand or restrict slavery.[124]
With the 1860 election of Abraham Lincoln, the first president from the largely anti-slavery Republican Party, conventions in thirteen slave states ultimately declared secession and formed the Confederate States of America (the "South"), while the federal government (the "Union") maintained that secession was illegal.[124] In order to bring about this secession, military action was initiated by the secessionists, and the Union responded in kind. The ensuing war would become the deadliest military conflict in American history, resulting in the deaths of approximately 618,000 soldiers as well as many civilians.[125] The South fought for the freedom to own slaves, while the Union at first simply fought to maintain the country as one united whole. Nevertheless, as casualties mounted after 1863 and Lincoln delivered his Emancipation Proclamation, the main purpose of the war from the Union's viewpoint became the abolition of slavery. Indeed, when the Union ultimately won the war in April 1865, each of the states in the defeated South was required to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery.
Three amendments were added to the U.S. Constitution in the years after the war: the aforementioned Thirteenth as well as the Fourteenth Amendment providing citizenship to the nearly four million African Americans who had been slaves,[126] and the Fifteenth Amendment ensuring in theory that African Americans had the right to vote. The war and its resolution led to a substantial increase in federal power[127] aimed at reintegrating and rebuilding the South while guaranteeing the rights of the newly freed slaves.
Reconstruction began in earnest following the war. While President Lincoln attempted to foster friendship and forgiveness between the Union and the former Confederacy, his assassination on April 14, 1865, drove a wedge between North and South again. Republicans in the federal government made it their goal to oversee the rebuilding of the South and to ensure the rights of African Americans. They persisted until the Compromise of 1877 when the Republicans agreed to cease protecting the rights of African Americans in the South in order for Democrats to concede the presidential election of 1876.
Southern white Democrats, calling themselves "Redeemers", took control of the South after the end of Reconstruction. From 1890 to 1910, so-called Jim Crow laws disenfranchised most blacks and some poor whites throughout the region. Blacks faced racial segregation, especially in the South.[128] They also occasionally experienced vigilante violence, including lynching.[129]
Further immigration, expansion, and industrialization Main articles: Economic history of the United States and Technological and industrial history of the United States
Ellis Island, in New York Harbor, was a major entry point for European immigration into the U.S.[130] In the North, urbanization and an unprecedented influx of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe supplied a surplus of labor for the country's industrialization and transformed its culture.[131] National infrastructure including telegraph and transcontinental railroads spurred economic growth and greater settlement and development of the American Old West. The later invention of electric light and the telephone would also affect communication and urban life.[132]
The United States fought Indian Wars west of the Mississippi River from 1810 to at least 1890.[133] Most of these conflicts ended with the cession of Native American territory and the confinement of the latter to Indian reservations. This further expanded acreage under mechanical cultivation, increasing surpluses for international markets.[134] Mainland expansion also included the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867.[135] In 1893, pro-American elements in Hawaii overthrew the monarchy and formed the Republic of Hawaii, which the U.S. annexed in 1898. Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines were ceded by Spain in the same year, following the Spanish–American War.[136] American Samoa was acquired by the United States in 1900 after the end of the Second Samoan Civil War.[137] The United States purchased the U.S. Virgin Islands from Denmark in 1917.[138]
The Statue of Liberty in New York City, symbol of the United States as well as its ideals[139] Rapid economic development during the late 19th and early 20th centuries fostered the rise of many prominent industrialists. Tycoons like Cornelius Vanderbilt, John D. Rockefeller, and Andrew Carnegie led the nation's progress in railroad, petroleum, and steel industries. Banking became a major part of the economy, with J. P. Morgan playing a notable role. Edison and Tesla undertook the widespread distribution of electricity to industry, homes, and for street lighting. Henry Ford revolutionized the automotive industry. The American economy boomed, becoming the world's largest, and the United States achieved great power status.[140] These dramatic changes were accompanied by social unrest and the rise of populist, socialist, and anarchist movements.[141] This period eventually ended with the advent of the Progressive Era, which saw significant reforms in many societal areas, including women's suffrage, alcohol prohibition, regulation of consumer goods, greater antitrust measures to ensure competition and attention to worker conditions.[142][143][144]
World War I, Great Depression, and World War II Further information: World War I, Great Depression, and World War II
The Empire State Building was the tallest building in the world when completed in 1931, during the Great Depression. The United States remained neutral from the outbreak of World War I in 1914 until 1917, when it joined the war as an "associated power", alongside the formal Allies of World War I, helping to turn the tide against the Central Powers. In 1919, President Woodrow Wilson took a leading diplomatic role at the Paris Peace Conference and advocated strongly for the U.S. to join the League of Nations. However, the Senate refused to approve this and did not ratify the Treaty of Versailles that established the League of Nations.[145]
In 1920, the women's rights movement won passage of a constitutional amendment granting women's suffrage.[146] The 1920s and 1930s saw the rise of radio for mass communication and the invention of early television.[147] The prosperity of the Roaring Twenties ended with the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the onset of the Great Depression. After his election as president in 1932, Franklin D. Roosevelt responded with the New Deal, which included the establishment of the Social Security system.[148] The Great Migration of millions of African Americans out of the American South began before World War I and extended through the 1960s;[149] whereas the Dust Bowl of the mid-1930s impoverished many farming communities and spurred a new wave of western migration.[150]
U.S. troops landing on Omaha Beach during the invasion of Normandy, June 6, 1944 At first effectively neutral during World War II while Germany conquered much of continental Europe, the United States began supplying materiel to the Allies in March 1941 through the Lend-Lease program. On December 7, 1941, the Empire of Japan launched a surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, prompting the United States to join the Allies against the Axis powers.[151] Although Japan attacked the United States first, the U.S. nonetheless pursued a "Europe first" defense policy.[152] The United States thus left its vast Asian colony, the Philippines, isolated and fighting a losing struggle against Japanese invasion and occupation, as military resources were devoted to the European theater. During the war, the United States was referred to as one of the "Four Policemen"[153] of Allies power who met to plan the postwar world, along with Britain, the Soviet Union and China.[154][155] Although the nation lost around 400,000 military personnel,[156] it emerged relatively undamaged from the war with even greater economic and military influence.[157]
Nuclear explosion from the Trinity Test Trinity test of the Manhattan Project's nuclear weapon The United States played a leading role in the Bretton Woods and Yalta conferences with the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, and other Allies, which signed agreements on new international financial institutions and Europe's postwar reorganization. As an Allied victory was won in Europe, a 1945 international conference held in San Francisco produced the United Nations Charter, which became active after the war.[158] The United States and Japan then fought each other in the largest naval battle in history in terms of gross tonnage sunk, the Battle of Leyte Gulf.[159][160] The United States eventually developed the first nuclear weapons and used them on Japan in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; causing the Japanese to surrender on September 2, ending World War II.[161][162] Parades and celebrations followed in what is known as Victory Day, or V-J Day.[163]
Cold War and civil rights era Main articles: History of the United States (1945–1964), History of the United States (1964–1980), and History of the United States (1980–1991) Further information: Cold War, Civil Rights Movement, War on Poverty, Space Race, and Reaganomics
Martin Luther King, Jr. gives his famous "I Have a Dream" speech at the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington, 1963 After World War II the United States and the Soviet Union competed for power, influence, and prestige during what became known as the Cold War, driven by an ideological divide between capitalism and communism[164] and, according to the school of geopolitics, a divide between the maritime Atlantic and the continental Eurasian camps. They dominated the military affairs of Europe, with the U.S. and its NATO allies on one side and the USSR and its Warsaw Pact allies on the other. The U.S. developed a policy of containment towards the expansion of communist influence. While the U.S. and Soviet Union engaged in proxy wars and developed powerful nuclear arsenals, the two countries avoided direct military conflict.
The United States often opposed Third World movements that it viewed as Soviet-sponsored, and occasionally pursued direct action for regime change against left-wing governments, even supporting right-wing authoritarian governments at times.[165] American troops fought communist Chinese and North Korean forces in the Korean War of 1950–53.[166] The Soviet Union's 1957 launch of the first artificial satellite and its 1961 launch of the first manned spaceflight initiated a "Space Race" in which the United States became the first nation to land a man on the moon in 1969.[166] A proxy war in Southeast Asia eventually evolved into full American participation, as the Vietnam War.
At home, the U.S. experienced sustained economic expansion and a rapid growth of its population and middle class. Construction of an Interstate Highway System transformed the nation's infrastructure over the following decades. Millions moved from farms and inner cities to large suburban housing developments.[167][168] In 1959 Hawaii became the 50th and last U.S. state added to the country.[169] The growing Civil Rights Movement used nonviolence to confront segregation and discrimination, with Martin Luther King Jr. becoming a prominent leader and figurehead. A combination of court decisions and legislation, culminating in the Civil Rights Act of 1968, sought to end racial discrimination.[170][171][172] Meanwhile, a counterculture movement grew which was fueled by opposition to the Vietnam war, black nationalism, and the sexual revolution.
U.S. president Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet general secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in Geneva, 1985 The launch of a "War on Poverty" expanded entitlements and welfare spending, including the creation of Medicare and Medicaid, two programs that provide health coverage to the elderly and poor, respectively, and the means-tested Food Stamp Program and Aid to Families with Dependent Children.[173]
The 1970s and early 1980s saw the onset of stagflation. After his election in 1980, President Ronald Reagan responded to economic stagnation with free-market oriented reforms. Following the collapse of détente, he abandoned "containment" and initiated the more aggressive "rollback" strategy towards the USSR.[174][175][176][177][178] After a surge in female labor participation over the previous decade, by 1985 the majority of women aged 16 and over were employed.[179]
The late 1980s brought a "thaw" in relations with the USSR, and its collapse in 1991 finally ended the Cold War.[180][181][182][183] This brought about unipolarity[184] with the U.S. unchallenged as the world's dominant superpower. The concept of Pax Americana, which had appeared in the post-World War II period, gained wide popularity as a term for the post-Cold War new world order.
Contemporary history Main articles: History of the United States (1991–2008) and History of the United States (2008–present) Further information: Gulf War, September 11 attacks, War on Terror, 2008 financial crisis, Affordable Care Act, and Death of Osama bin Laden
The World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan during the September 11 terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group Al-Qaeda in 2001
One World Trade Center, newly built in its place After the Cold War, the conflict in the Middle East triggered a crisis in 1990, when Iraq under Saddam Hussein invaded and attempted to annex Kuwait, an ally of the United States. Fearing that the instability would spread to other regions, President George H. W. Bush launched Operation Desert Shield, a defensive force buildup in Saudi Arabia, and Operation Desert Storm, in a staging titled the Gulf War; waged by coalition forces from 34 nations, led by the United States against Iraq ending in the successful expulsion of Iraqi forces from Kuwait, restoring the former monarchy.[185]
Originating within U.S. military defense networks, the Internet spread to international academic platforms and then to the public in the 1990s, greatly affecting the global economy, society, and culture.[186] Due to the dot-com boom, stable monetary policy under Alan Greenspan, and reduced social welfare spending, the 1990s saw the longest economic expansion in modern U.S. history, ending in 2001.[187] Beginning in 1994, the U.S. entered into the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), linking 450 million people producing $17 trillion worth of goods and services. The goal of the agreement was to eliminate trade and investment barriers among the U.S., Canada, and Mexico by January 1, 2008. Trade among the three partners has soared since NAFTA went into force.[188]
On September 11, 2001, Al-Qaeda terrorists struck the World Trade Center in New York City and the Pentagon near Washington, D.C., killing nearly 3,000 people.[189] In response, the United States launched the War on Terror, which included war in Afghanistan and the 2003–11 Iraq War.[190][191] In 2007, the Bush administration ordered a major troop surge in the Iraq War,[192] which successfully reduced violence and led to greater stability in the region.[193][194]
Government policy designed to promote affordable housing,[195] widespread failures in corporate and regulatory governance,[196] and historically low interest rates set by the Federal Reserve[197] led to the mid-2000s housing bubble, which culminated with the 2008 financial crisis, the largest economic contraction in the nation's history since the Great Depression.[198] Barack Obama, the first African-American[199] and multiracial[200] president, was elected in 2008 amid the crisis,[201] and subsequently passed stimulus measures and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act in an attempt to mitigate its negative effects and ensure there would not be a repeat of the crisis. The stimulus facilitated infrastructure improvements[202] and a relative decline in unemployment.[203] Dodd-Frank improved financial stability and consumer protection,[204] although there has been debate about its effects on the economy.[205]
President Donald Trump and former presidents Barack Obama, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter at the state funeral of George H. W. Bush, December 2018 In 2010, the Obama administration passed the Affordable Care Act, which made the most sweeping reforms to the nation's healthcare system in nearly five decades, including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges.
submitted by MWiatrak2077 to teenagersnew [link] [comments]

2020.04.04 18:34 clemaneuverers "Sasquatch", "Wildmen", "Matlox", "Yeti" "Almas"; call them what you will; there are credible historical and contemporary reports and evidence, from around the world, that show mysterious Humanoid/Ape-like Mammals exist in the wilderness of the Earth's continents.

What follows is a massively abridged (by me) version of Chapter 10 of "Forbidden Archeology" by Michael Cremo and Richard L. Thompson. Reading it recently I found it enthralling, but I wished some of the things described were better illustrated (if at all!). So I spent some time searching online for the appropriate images. I then abridged and formatted the chapter for posting to Reddit, and inserted the pictures that I found into the text. I've included, at an appropriate part of the text, a link to more recent info relating to DNA discoveries ...
Living Ape-Men?
There are signs that humans may have coexisted with more apelike hominids throughout the Pleistocene. We suggest that humans and ape-man-like creatures continue to coexist. Over the past hundred or so years, researchers have accumulated substantial evidence that creatures resembling Neanderthals, Homo erectus, and the Australopithecines even now roam wilderness areas of the world.
Hard Evidence Is Hard To Find
In 1775, Carl Linnaeus, the founder of the modern system of biological classification, listed three existing human species: Homo sapiens, Homo troglodytes (cave man), and Homo ferus (wild man). Although Linnaeus knew the latter two species only from travellers’ reports and secondary sources, he included them in his Systema Naturae.
Professional scientists have (1) observed wild-men in natural surroundings, (2) observed live captured specimens, (3) observed dead specimens, and (4) collected physical evidence for wild-men, including hundreds of footprints. They have also interviewed non-scientist informants and investigated the vast amount of wildman lore contained in ancient literatures and traditions.
Many will say that all the wildman evidence mentioned above exists simply in reports, and that reports alone, even those given by scientists, are not sufficient to establish the existence of wild-men. However, in palaeoanthropology, as in many areas of science, evidence exists primarily in the form of reports.
During World War II almost the whole collection of Homo Erectus fossils was lost during the Japanese occupation of China. The Homo Erectus fossils now exist only in the form of old written reports, photographs, and casts. And no one doubts that the originals did in fact exist.
But what about reports by scientists who claim they saw and examined dead specimens of wildmen, the corpses of which were not preserved? Most scientists will grant no credibility at all to such reports. In one case the reports are believed, and in the other they are not. Why? We propose that reports about evidence conforming to the standard view of human evolution generally receive greater credibility than reports about nonconforming evidence. Thus deeply held beliefs, rather than purely objective standards, may become the determining factor in the acceptance and rejection of reports about controversial evidence.
...refers to the scientific investigation of species whose existence has been reported but not fully documented.
Is it really possible that there could be an unknown species of hominid on this planet? There remain vast unpopulated and little-travelled areas. In particular, the North-Western United States still has large regions of densely forested, mountainous terrain which, although mapped from the air, are rarely penetrated by humans on the ground. A surprising number of new species of animals are still being found each year—about 5,000 according to a conservative estimate. As might be suspected, the great majority of these, some 4,000, are insects.
Yet, The largest of the bears, the Kodiak bear, was unknown to science until 1899. The largest rhinoceros, Cotton’s white rhino, was discovered in 1900. The mountain gorilla, the largest member of the ape family, turned up in 1901. The largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, was first captured in 1912. In 1975, the largest known peccary, or wild hog, Catagonus wagneri, was discovered in Paraguay. This animal was previously known only by Pleistocene fossils. In 1976, a large and entirely new species of shark, 4.5 meters (almost 15 feet) long and weighing over 700 kilograms (over 1,500 pounds), was caught by a U.S. Navy ship in the ocean waters off Hawaii.
European Wild-men
Many art objects of the Greeks, Romans, Carthaginians, and Etruscans bear images of semi-human creatures resembling wild-men. During the Middle Ages, wild-men continued to be depicted in European art and architecture. A page from Queen Mary’s Psalter, composed in the fourteenth century, shows a very realistically depicted hairy wildman being attacked by a pack of dogs.
Wild-men were thought to live in caves and forests. They subsisted on berries and roots. They were not considered ordinary humans. They were said to be members of the animal kingdom.
Northwestern North America
In 1792, the Spanish botanist-naturalist José Mariano Moziño, in describing the Indians of Nootka Sound on Vancouver Island, Canada, stated:
“I do not know what to say about Matlox, inhabitant of the mountainous district, of whom all have an unbelievable terror. They imagine his body as very monstrous, all covered with stiff black bristles; a head similar to a human one, but with much greater, sharper and stronger fangs than those of the bear; extremely long arms; and toes and fingers armed with long curved claws. His shouts alone (they say) force those who hear them to the ground, and any unfortunate body he slaps is broken into a thousand pieces.”
Of the Spokane Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Elkanah Walker, a missionary who lived among them for 9 years, wrote in 1840:
“They believe in the existence of a race of giants which inhabit a certain mountain, off to the west of us. They inhabit its top. They hunt and do all their work in the night. They are men stealers. They come to people’s lodges in the night, when the people are asleep and take them and put them under their skins and take them to their place of abode without their even awakening. They say their track is about a foot and a half long. They frequently come in the night and steal their salmon from their nets and eat them raw. If the people are awake they always know when they are coming very near by the smell which is most intolerable”
Indians from the Columbia River region of the northwestern United States produced rock carvings that resembled the heads of apes. Anthropologist Grover Krantz showed photographs of the heads to a number of scientists and noted:
“Zoologists who did not know their source unanimously declared them to be representative of nonhuman, higher primates; those who knew the source insisted they must be something else!” Preconceptions seem to determine what scientists are prepared to see, and one thing most scientists are definitely not prepared to see is apelike creatures in the American Northwest.
On July 4, 1884, the Colonist, a newspaper published in Victoria, British Columbia, carried a story titled: “What is it? A strange creature captured above Yale. A British Columbian Gorilla.” Ned Austin, a railway engineer, spotted a human-like creature ahead of him on the tracks, blew the whistle, and stopped. The creature darted up the side of a hill, with several railway employees in pursuit. After capturing the animal, described as “half man and half beast”, the railway employees turned him over to Mr. George Tilbury. The Colonist reported: “‘Jacko,’ as the creature has been called by his capturers, is something of the gorilla type, standing about four feet seven inches in height and weighing 127 pounds. He has long, black, strong hair and resembles a human being with one exception, his entire body, excepting his hands (or paws) and feet is covered with glossy hair about one inch long. His forearm is much longer than a man’s forearm, and he possesses extraordinary strength”
Myra Shackley noted:
“The newspaper account of Jacko was subsequently confirmed by an old man, August Castle, who was a child in the town at the time. The fate of the captive is not known, although some said that he (accompanied by Mr. Tilbury) was shipped east by rail in a cage on the way to be exhibited in a sideshow, but died in transit”
Furthermore, there were additional reports of creatures like Jacko from the same region. Zoologist Ivan Sanderson said about Jacko in one of his collections of wildman evidence:
“one of his species had been reported from the same area by Mr. Alexander Caulfield Anderson, a well-known explorer and an executive of the Hudson’s Bay Company, who was doing a ‘survey’ of the newly opened territory and seeking a feasible trade route through it for his company. He reported just such hairy humanoids as having hurled rocks down upon him and his surveying party from more than one slope. That was in 1864.”
In 1967, in the Bluff Creek region of Northern California, Roger Patterson and Bob Gimlin managed to shoot a short color film of a female Sasquatch.
They also made casts of her footprints. These prints, which were 14 inches long, were 5.5 inches wide at the ball and 4 inches wide at the heel
Several opinions have been expressed about the film. While some authorities have said it is an outright fake, others have said they think it provides good evidence in favor of the reality of the Sasquatch. Mixed opinions have also been put forward. A man could have sufficient height and suitable proportions to mimic the longitudinal dimensions of the Sasquatch. The shoulder breadth however would be difficult to achieve without giving an unnatural appearance to the arm swing and shoulder contours”
Anthropologist Myra Shackley of the University of Leicester observed that the majority view seems to be
“that the film could be a hoax, but if so an incredibly clever one.”
Dr. Jeff Meldrum compares the surface anatomy between the costumes in Beneath the Planet of the Apes and the Patterson-Gimlin film. He says there’s no comparison.
More Footprints
As far as Sasquatch footprints are concerned, independent witnesses have examined and reported hundreds of sets, and of these more than 100 have been preserved in photographs and casts.
Footprint comparison by Professor Meldrum
Napier stated:
“if any of them is real then as scientists we have a lot to explain. Among other things we shall have to re-write the story of human evolution. Critics, however, assert that all these footprints have been faked. Undoubtedly, some footprints have been faked, a fact the staunchest supporters of the Sasquatch will readily admit. But could every single one of them be a hoax?
Grover S. Krantz, an anthropologist at Washington State University, was initially skeptical of Sasquatch reports.In reconstructing the skeletal structure of the foot from a print, he noted that the ankle was positioned more forward than in a human foot. Taking into consideration the reported height and weight of an adult Sasquatch, Krantz, using his knowledge of physical anthropology, calculated just how far forward the ankle would have to be set. Returning to the prints, he found that the position of the ankle exactly matched his theoretical calculations.
“That’s when I decided the thing is real,”
said Krantz.
“There is no way a faker could have known how far forward to set that ankle. It took me a couple of months to work it out with the casts in hand, so you have to figure how much smarter a faker would’ve had to be”
Typically the prints are 14 to 18 inches long and 5 to 9 inches wide, giving a surface roughly 3 to 4 times larger than that of an average human foot. Hence the popular name Bigfoot. To make a Sasquatch footprint as deep as an average human footprint would require a weight 3 to 4 times greater than that of an average-sized man. In all cases, however, whether the prints are in snow, mud, dirt, or wet sand, the Sasquatch prints are much deeper than those made by a man walking right next to them in the same material. Thus a weight of more than 3 or 4 times that of a man is required to make the Sasquatch prints. A 200-pound man would have to be carrying at least 500 pounds to make a good print. There are reports of series of prints extending from three-quarters of a mile up to several miles, in deserted regions far away from the nearest roads. The stride length of a Sasquatch varies from 4 to 6 feet (the stride length of an average man is about 3 feet). Try walking a mile with at least 500 pounds on your back and taking strides 5 feet long.
In several cases, the Sasquatch footprints indicated the maker strode over large logs, which a human of normal size could not have gotten over without disturbing the fresh snow clearly visible on their tops. In some cases, the distance between the toes of the footprints varied from one print to the next in a single series of prints. This means that besides all the other problems facing a hoaxer, he would have had to incorporate moving parts into his artificial feet. Furthermore, in order to insure that some of his fake prints would be found, any hoaxer would probably have had to make more trails of footprints than were actually discovered—and that means a lot of work.
In conclusion, critics have failed to explain all the footprints as the work of hoaxers. It would seem, therefore, that the footprints argue strongly for the reality of the Sasquatch, as demonstrated by the following case.
On June 10, 1982, Paul Freeman, a U.S. Forest Service patrolman tracking elk in the Walla Walla district of Washington State, observed a hairy biped around 8 feet tall, standing about 60 yards from him. After 30 seconds, the large animal walked away. Krantz studied casts of the creature’s footprints and found dermal ridges, sweat pores, and other features in the proper places for large primate feet. Detailed skin impressions on the side walls of the prints indicated the presence of a flexible sole pad. Krantz solicited opinions from other scholars and fingerprint experts. Tatyana Gladkova, a specialist in dermatoglyphics from the USSR Institute of Anthropology, said:
“I see dermal ridges of the arch type distally directed. I see sweat pores. If it’s a fake, it’s a brilliant fake, on the level of counterfeiting, and by someone well versed in dermatoglyphics”
Douglas M. Monsoor, a master police fingerprint examiner from Lakewood, Colorado, stated:
“I see the presence of ridge structure in these casts, which, in my examination, appears consistent with that type of ridge structure you would find in a human. Under magnification, they evidence all the minute characteristics similar to human dermal ridges. They appear to be casts of impressions of a primate foot—of a creature different from any of which I am aware”
The majority of the Sasquatch reports come from the northwestern United States and British Columbia. However, there are also numerous reports from the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. For example there were, as of 1977, 11 reports from New York, more than 24 reports from Pennsylvania, 19 reports from Ohio, 18 from Michigan, 9 from Tennessee, more than 36 from New Jersey, 19 from Arkansas, 23 from Illinois, 30 from Texas, and 104 from Florida, 74 reports from Montana, 32 from Idaho, 176 from Oregon, 281 from Washington, 225 from British Columbia, and 343 from California.
“One is forced to conclude that a man-like life-form of gigantic proportions is living at the present time in the wild areas of the northwestern United States and British Columbia.”
Central And South America
In Buckskin Joe, Edward Jonathan Hoyt reported an encounter he had in 1898 in Honduras. A large, apelike creature, about 5 feet tall, crawled over the end of his bunk. Hoyt killed the animal, which resembled a human
From southern Mexico’s tropical forests come accounts of beings called the Sisimite. Wendell Skousen, a geologist, said the people of Cubulco in Baja Verapaz reported: “There live in the mountains very big, wild men, completely clothed in short, thick, brown, hairy fur, with no necks, small eyes, long arms and huge hands. They leave footprints twice the length of a man’s.” “it looked like a bear, but it wasn’t from the description that they gave—no conspicuous ears, no ‘snout’” Similar creatures are reported in Guatemala, where, it has been said, they kidnap women and children
From the eastern slopes of the Andes in Ecuador come reports of the Shiru, a small fur-covered hominidlike creature, about 4 to 5 feet tall (Sanderson 1961, p. 166). In Brazil, people tell of the large apelike Mapinguary, which leaves giant humanlike footprints and is said to kill cattle.
Yeti: Wildmen of The Himalayas
Myra Shackley observed that Yeti are found in Nepalese and Tibetan religious paintings depicting hierarchies of living beings.
“Here, bears, apes, and langurs are depicted separate from the wildman, suggesting there is no confusion (at least in the minds of the artists) between these forms.”
After reviewing the available reports, Ivan Sanderson compiled the following composite description of the Yeti:
“Somewhat larger than man-sized and much more sturdy, with short legs and long arms; clothed in long rather shaggy fur or hair, same length all over and not differentiated. Naked face and other parts jet black; bull-neck and small conical head with heavy browridges; fanged canine teeth; can drop hands to ground and stand on knuckles like gorilla. Heel very wide and foot almost square and very large, second toe longer and larger than first, and both these separated and semi-opposed to the remaining three which are very small and webbed.”
In November of 1951, Eric Shipton, while reconnoitering the approaches to Mt. Everest, found footprints on the Menlung glacier, near the border between Tibet and Nepal, at an elevation of 18,000 feet. Shipton followed the trail for a mile. Already well known as a mountaineer, Shipton could not easily be accused of publicity-seeking. A close-up photograph of one of the prints has proved convincing to many. In 1956, Professor E. S. Williams photographed some prints on the Biafo glacier in the Karakoram mountains. Napier, who thought it likely that they were the superimposed prints of the front and rear paws of a bear, said
“It is impossible to state categorically that Williams’s prints are those of a bear and not of a Yeti, but in the spirit of Bishop of Ockham it seems more reasonable to explain a phenomenon in terms of the known rather than the unknown.”
Of course, in avoiding the relatively straightforward explanation that a peculiar set of tracks in snow was made by an unknown animal, one is forced to come up with all kinds of speculative hypotheses about the superimposition of prints of various animals and humans, or the transformation of such prints by melting, in a manner not clearly understood. And this would also appear to be a violation of a key aspect of Ockham’s razor—namely, that the simplest of competing theories is preferable to the more complex.
Some Buddhist monasteries claim to have physical remains of the Yeti. One category of such relics is Yeti scalps, but the ones studied by Western scientists are thought to have been made from the skins of known animals. In 1960, Sir Edmund Hillary mounted an expedition to collect and evaluate evidence for the Yeti and sent a Yeti scalp from the Khumjung monastery to the West for testing. The results indicated that the scalp had been manufactured from the skin of the serow, a goatlike Himalayan antelope. But some disagreed with this analysis. Shackley said they
“pointed out that hairs from the scalp look distinctly monkey-like, and that it contains parasitic mites of a species different from that recovered from the serow.”
In 1978, Lord Hunt, who headed the British Mt. Everest expedition of 1953, saw Yeti tracks and heard the high-pitched cry the Yeti is said to make. Lord Hunt, described by Shackley as “a vigorous champion of the Yeti,” had come upon similar tracks in 1953. In both 1953 and 1978, the tracks were found at altitudes of 15,000 to 20,000 feet, too high for the either the black or red bears of the Himalayas.
It is interesting to note that science has recognized the existence of many fossil species on the strength of their footprints alone. The hypotheses and reconstructions of cryptozoology (regarding animals actually alive) are no more daring, questionable, fantastic, or illegitimate than those upon which paleontology has based its reconstructions of the fauna of past ages.
The Almas of Central Asia
There is another wildman, the Almas, which seems smaller and more human. A drawing of an Almas is found in a nineteenth-century Mongol compendium of medicines derived from various plants and animals. The text next to the picture reads:
“The wildman lives in the mountains, his origins close to that of the bear, his body resembles that of man, and he has enormous strength. His meat may be eaten to treat mental diseases and his gall cures jaundice” Reports of the Almas are concentrated in an area extending from Mongolia in the north, south through the Pamirs, and then westward into the Caucasus region. Similar reports come from Siberia and the far northeast parts of the Russian republic.
Early in the fifteenth century, Hans Schiltenberger wrote in his book of the Tien Shan mountain range in Mongolia: “The inhabitants say that beyond the mountains is the beginning of a wasteland which lies at the edge of the earth. No one can survive there because the desert is populated by so many snakes and tigers. In the mountains themselves live wild people, who have nothing in common with other human beings. A pelt covers the entire body of these creatures. Only the hands and face are free of hair. They run around in the hills like animals and eat foliage and grass and whatever else they can find. The lord of the territory made Egidi a present of a couple of forest people, a man and a woman. They had been caught in the wilderness, together with three untamed horses the size of asses and all sorts of other animals which are not found in German lands and which I cannot therefore put a name to”
Myra Shackley found Schiltenberger’s account especially credible for two reasons:
“First, Schiltenberger reports that he saw the creatures with his own eyes. Secondly, he refers to Przewalski horses, which were only rediscovered by Nicholai Przewalski in 1881. Przewalski himself saw ‘wildmen’ in Mongolia in 1871.”
Shackley noted:
“The book contains thousands of illustrations of various classes of animals, but not one single mythological animal such as are known from similar medieval European books. All the creatures are living and observable today.”
The Pamir mountains, lying in a remote region where the borders of Tadzhikistan, China, Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, have been the scene of many Almas sightings. In 1925, Mikhail Stephanovitch Topilski, a major-general in the Soviet army, led his unit in an assault on an anti-Soviet guerilla force hiding in a cave in the Pamirs. One of the surviving guerillas said that while in the cave he and his comrades were attacked by several apelike creatures. The body of one such creature was found.
“It was covered with hair all over. But I knew there were no apes in the Pamirs. Also, the body itself looked very much like that of a man. We tried pulling the hair, to see if it was just a hide used for disguise, but found that it was the creature’s own natural hair. We turned the body over several times on its back and its front, and measured it. Our doctor made a long and thorough inspection of the body, and it was clear that it was not a human being. The body belonged to a male creature 165–170 cm [about 5½ feet] tall, elderly or even old, judging by the greyish colour of the hair in several places. The chest was covered with brownish hair and the belly with greyish hair. The hair was longer but sparser on the chest and close-cropped and thick on the belly. In general the hair was very thick, without any underfur. There was least hair on the buttocks, from which fact our doctor deduced that the creature sat like a human being. There was most hair on the hips. The knees were completely bare of hair and had callous growths on them. The whole foot including the sole was quite hairless and was covered by hard brown skin. The hair got thinner near the hand, and the palms had none at all but only callous skin.”
“The colour of the face was dark, and the creature had neither beard nor moustache. The temples were bald and the back of the head was covered by thick, matted hair. The dead creature lay with its eyes open and its teeth bared. The eyes were dark and the teeth were large and even and shaped like human teeth. The forehead was slanting and the eyebrows were very powerful. The protruding jawbones made the face resemble the Mongol type of face. The nose was flat, with a deeply sunk bridge. The ears were hairless and looked a little more pointed than a human being’s with a longer lobe. The lower jaw was very massive. The creature had a very powerful chest and well developed muscles. The arms were of normal length, the hands were slightly wider and the feet much wider and shorter than man’s.”
According to testimony from villagers of Tkhina, on the Mokvi River, a female Almas was captured there during the nineteenth century, in the forests of Mt. Zaadan. For three years, she was kept imprisoned, but then became domesticated and was allowed to live in a house. She was called Zana. (artists impression) “Her skin was a greyish-black colour, covered with reddish hair, longer on her head than elsewhere. She was capable of inarticulate cries but never developed a language. She had a large face with big cheek bones, muzzle-like prognathous jaw and large eyebrows, big white teeth and a ‘fierce expression.’” Eventually Zana, through sexual relations with a villager, had children. Some of Zana’s grandchildren were seen by Boris Porshnev in 1964. “The grandchildren, Chalikoua and Taia, had darkish skin of rather negroid appearance, with very prominent chewing muscles and extra strong jaws.”
Was 19th Century apewoman a yeti? 6ft 6in Russian serf who could outrun a horse was 'not human', according to DNA tests
In 1899, K. A. Satunin, a Russian zoologist, spotted a female Biaban-guli in the Talysh hills of the southern Caucasus. He stated that the creature had “fully human movements” (Shackley 1983, p. 109). The fact that Satunin was a well-known zoologist makes his report particularly significant.
Wildmen of China
“Chinese historical documents, and many city and town annals, contain abundant records of Wildman, which are given various names,”
states Zhou Guoxing of the Beijing Museum of Natural History. Two thousand years ago, the poet-statesman Qu Yuan made many references to Shangui (mountain ogres) in his verses. Li Yanshow, a historian who lived during the T’Ang Dynasty (a.d. 618–907), stated that the forests of Hubei province sheltered a band of wildmen. Wildmen also appeared in the writings of Li Shizhen, a pharmacologist of the Ming Dynasty (a.d. 1368–1644). In the fifty-first volume of his massive work on medical ingredients, he described several species of humanoid creatures, including one named Fei-fei.
Li wrote:
“‘Feifei,’ which are called ‘manbear,’ are also found in the mountainous areas in west Shu and Chu division, where people skin them and eat their palms. The You mountain of Sha county, Fujian province, sees the same ones, standing about one zhang (equal to 3.1 meters [ just over 10 feet]) in height and smiling to the people they come across, and are called ‘shandaren’ (men as big as mountains), ‘wildmen,’ or ‘shanxiao’”.
In the eighteenth century, the Chinese poet Yuan Mei made reference to strange creatures inhabiting the wild regions of Shanxi province, calling them “monkeylike, yet not monkeylike”
According to Zhou:
“Even today, in the area of Fang County, Hubei Province, there are still legends about ‘maoren’ (hairy men) or ‘wildmen.’ A local chronicle, about 200 years old, says that ‘the Fang mountain lying 40 li (2 li equals one kilometer [.62 mile]) south to the county town is precipitous and full of holes, where live many maoren, about one zhang high and hair-coated. They often come down to eat human beings and chickens and dogs, and seize those who fight with them.’A lantern on which there is an ornament of a ‘maoren’ figure was unearthed in this area during an archaeological excavation. It has been dated at 2,000 years”
In 1940, Wang Zelin, a graduate of the biology department of Northwestern University in Chicago, was able to directly see a wildman shortly after it was shot to death by hunters. Wang was driving from Baoji, in Shanxi Province, to Tianshui, in Gansu Province, when he heard gunfire ahead of him. He got out of the car to satisfy his curiosity and saw a corpse. It was a female creature, six and a half feet tall and covered with a coat of thick greyish-red hair about one and a quarter inches long. The hair on its face was shorter. The cheek bones were prominent, and the lips jutted out. The hair on the head was about one foot long. According to Wang, the creature looked like a reconstruction of the Chinese Homo erectus.
Ten years later, another scientist, Fun Jinquan, a geologist, saw some living wildmen. Zhou Guoxing stated: “With the help of local guides, he watched, at a safe distance, two local Wildmen in the mountain forest near Baoji County, Shanxi Province, in the spring of 1950. They were mother and son, the smaller one being 1.6 meters in height. Both looked human”
In 1961, workers building a road through the heavily forested Xishuang Banna region of Yunnan province in southernmost China reported killing a humanlike female primate. The creature was 1.2–1.3 meters (about 4 feet) tall and covered with hair. It walked upright, and according to the eyewitness reports, its hands, ears, and breasts were like those of a female human. The Chinese Academy of Sciences sent a team to investigate, but they were not able to obtain any physical evidence. Some suggested that the workers had come upon a gibbon. But Zhou Guoxing stated:
“The present author recently visited a newsman who took part in that investigation. He stated that the animal which had been killed was not a gibbon, but an unknown animal of human shape. It is worth noting that, over the past 2 years or so, some people in the western border areas of Yunnan Province say that the above-mentioned kind of Wildman still move about, and that another one has since been killed”
Consider the case of Pang Gensheng, a local commune leader, who was confronted in the forest by a wildman. Pang, who stood face to face with the creature, said;
“He was about seven feet tall, with shoulders wider than a man’s, a sloping forehead, deep-set eyes and a bulbous nose with slightly upturned nostrils. He had sunken cheeks, ears like a man’s but bigger, and round eyes, also bigger than a man’s. His jaw jutted out and he had protruding lips. His front teeth were as broad as a horse’s. His eyes were black. His hair was dark brown, more than a foot long and hung loosely over his shoulders. His whole face, except for the nose and ears, was covered with short hairs. His arms hung down to below his knees. He had big hands with fingers about six inches long and thumbs only slightly separated from the fingers. He didn’t have a tail and the hair on his body was short. He had thick thighs, shorter than the lower part of his leg. He walked upright with his legs apart. His feet were each about 12 inches long and half that broad—broader in front and narrow behind, with splayed toes”
Wildmen of Malaysia And Indonesia
In 1969, John McKinnon, who journeyed to Borneo to observe orangutans, came across some humanlike footprints. McKinnon asked his Malay boatman what made them.
“Without a moment’s hesitation he replied ‘Batutut,’” wrote McKinnon, “but when I asked him to describe the beast he said it was not an animal but a type of ghost. Batutut, he told me, is about four feet tall, walks upright like a man and has a long black mane. Like other spirits of the forest the creature is very shy of light and fire”
Later, in Malaya, McKinnon saw some casts of footprints even bigger than those he had seen in Borneo, but he recognized them as definitely having been made by the same kind of creature. The Malayans called it Orangpendek (short fellow). McKinnon stated:
“Again natives spoke of a creature with long hair, who walks upright like a man. Drawings and even photographs of similar footprints found in Sumatra are attributed to the Sedapa or Umang, a small, shy, long-haired, bipedal being living deep in the forest” (Green 1978, pp. 134 –135). According to Ivan Sanderson, these footprints differ from those of the anthropoid apes inhabiting the Indonesian forests (the gibbon, siamang, and orangutan). They are also distinct from those of the sun bear (Sanderson 1961, p. 219).
In a journal article about wildmen published in 1918, Westenek recorded a report from a Mr. Oostingh, who lived in Sumatra. Once while proceeding through the forest, he came upon a man sitting on a log and facing away from him. Oostingh stated:
“I saw that he had short hair, cut short, I thought; and I suddenly realised that his neck was oddly leathery and extremely filthy. ‘That chap’s got a very dirty and wrinkled neck!’ I said to myself. His body was as large as a medium-sized native’s and he had thick square shoulders, not sloping at all. . . . he seemed to be quite as tall as I (about 5 feet 9 inches). Then I saw that it was not a man.” “It was not an orang-utan,” declared Oostingh. “I had seen one of these large apes a short time before.”
What was the creature if not an orangutan? Oostingh could not say for sure:
“It was more like a monstrously large siamang, but a siamang has long hair, and there was no doubt that it had short hair”
Mainstream Science and Wildman Reports
Despite all the evidence we have presented, most recognized authorities in anthropology and zoology decline to discuss the existence of wildmen. If they mention wildmen at all, they rarely present the really strong evidence for their existence, focusing instead on the reports least likely to challenge their disbelief.
Hand and foot bones of wildmen, and even a head, have been collected. Competent persons report having examined bodies of wildmen. And there are also a number of accounts of capture. That none of this physical evidence has made its way into museums and other scientific institutions may be taken as a failure of the process for gathering and preserving evidence. The operation of what we could call a knowledge filter tends to keep evidence tinged with disrepute outside official channels.
However, some scientists with solid reputations, such as Krantz, Napier, Shackley, Porshnev, and others, have found in the available evidence enough reason to conclude that wildmen do in fact exist, or, at least, that the question of their existence is worthy of serious study.
Myra Shackley wrote to our researcher Steve Bernath on December 4, 1984:
“As you know, this whole question is highly topical, and there has been an awful lot of correspondence and publication flying around on the scene. Opinions vary, but I guess that the commonest would be that there is indeed sufficient evidence to suggest at least the possibility of the existence of various unclassified manlike creatures, but that in the present state of our knowledge it is impossible to comment on their significance in any more detail. The position is further complicated by misquotes, hoaxing, and lunatic fringe activities, but a surprising number of hardcore anthropologists seem to be of the opinion that the matter is very worthwhile investigating.”
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2020.03.24 05:04 Diotoiren [DIPLOMACY] "The False Songs of Dutch Seduction"

The False Songs of Dutch Seduction

Signed by the Heads of State of,
Date Issued - January 1st, 2053
Issued by the Foreign Offices of all Signature nations
The Nations of Europe a strong breed of proud, independent, and sovereign nations. A group of nations who stood triumphant against the Third Reich, against the Soviet Union, against Tyranny and Greed. A group of nations who have stood and stand for the betterment of the European Collective, for the betterment of our Allies.
However like the people of Wiemar Germany or Italy, we have become deceived by the False Songs of a Seductress.
We the Nations of Europe have allowed a Snake into our home. We have allowed ourselves to waltz into the waiting maw of a Lion.
Officially - we reject and outright condemn the hegemonic control that the Dutch have attempted to push upon the Nations of Europe. We condemn their inaction while Hundreds of Thousands of North American lives rushed to our aid, we condemn Dutch actions to support Padania and the use of civilians in combat while the Entirety of Humanity faces it's greatest threat.
We reject ongoing Dutch attempts to take and control the Men and Women of Europe. We reject the Dutch attempts to create a system of Dutch-puppet States within the EU Voting Member Board.
No longer will we tolerate or accept, the Dutch nation threatening action and violence against the EU Members or those of the UN. No longer will we accept the Dutch placing their imperialistic ambitions before the survival of Humanity.
When Germany was attacked, it was not the supposed European Leader - the United Kingdom which was the first to respond to the cries for help. It was our American, Canadian, and Commonwealth Neighbors who responded in force. Instead our supposed ally continued (even after knowledge of the attack) to support it's imperialistic ambitions in Europe.
When the UN Sanctioned operations that included EU Members moved to eliminate the non-recognized Padania, it was the Dutch who used civilians under the guise of Padania orders against the UN led peacekeeping force.
When the Dutch "Colonies" which they had stolen from the UCR in the Caribbean declared independence - they (Dutch) instead of fighting against the Unity, attempted to convince the American Republic to invade the Caribbean Islands in an attempt to retain Colonial Control. The same American Republic which was actively spilling blood to save Europe.
As Columbian Republic, Canadian, and American Republic Forces stream in force to defend Europe, as Chinese and Japanese Armies come together to fight the supreme threat, as the United Commonwealth Realms puts aside it's difference with Brazil to fight the Hivemind - the Dutch remain content in attempting to secure it's vassal-state control over Padania.
The Dutch contribution to the war against the Unity, has been a nuclear program which started the first-strike on Germany. The air contribution? Minimal.
The Dutch represent the epitome of greed. They represent the pinnacle of self-serving decision making. However today that castle of sand has come crumbling down.
Under no circumstances will we allow the Dutch to establish a "Grand Joint Command" under Dutch Leadership. Under no circumstances will we allow a Pan European Army, Navy, or Air Force to be led by the Dutch. Who have on multiple occasions proven themselves more interested in protecting the un-recognized Padania than in anything else.
Officially the nations have agreed to retain the Pan-European Military Format - however it will now be led by a collective EU leadership working in close cooperation with NATO and DISCO in place of ever seeing Dutch Leadership.
For those nations who have agreed to sign - that may not be in the EU, it represents a major shift away from Dutch Influence within Europe as a whole and should not be taken lightly.
Thanks to Canadian Investigative Journalists and the efforts of DISCO as a whole, we have come closer to the truth. The truth being that the Dutch are the pinnacle of Greed.
Europe will no longer surrender itself to the False Songs of Dutch Seduction.
Europe will stand Proud, Independent, and Strong as it always has. It will stand alongside it's DISCO Allies as they sacrifice in the defense of Europe. They will stand with their NATO allies as they fight against the Unity.
The era of Dutch Supremacy in European Politics has ended.
part of this - not publicizing this.
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2020.03.19 14:08 HighCrimesandHistory Historical Pandemics Megathread - Smallpox

If you're looking for the Bubonic Plague one, it's over here:
Hey everybody! I know I've been out for a couple weeks. It's strange coming back. Everyone's acting like it's the end of the world...oh, wait.
I do a lot of epidemiological history and have a boatload of sources, some that I've shared here before. I thought instead of making a post for each one I'd consolidate them into a couple smaller posts. Some of these I've posted here before, others are completely new. Peruse to your liking.
Finally, if you're someone who would rather listen to these than hear them, I've made a podcast episode with some commentary on what historical pandemics tell us about COVID-19 and the consequences we'll have. You can find it here.
Their House Became Their Tomb - The Aztec's Succumb to Epidemics
With the Columbian Exchange came numerous diseases from Europe. The Native American population was unprepared for these diseases, and between 50-90% of natives died shortly after contracting a disease. Two historical sources explain the desolation this brought upon the Empire:
Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Florentine Codex (1590) - [Before the Spaniards appeared to us again, first an epidemic broke out, a sickness of pustules. It began in September. Large bumps spread on people, some were entirely covered. They spread everywhere, on the face, the head, the chest, etc. The disease brought great desolation; a great many died of it. They could no longer walk about, but lay in their dwellings and sleeping places, no longer able to move or stir. They were unable to change position, to stretch out on their sides or face down, or raise their heads. And when they made a motion, they called out loudly. The pustules that covered people caused great desolation; very many people died of them, and many just starved to death; starvation reigned, and no one took care of others any longer.]
Toribio Montolinia, History of the Indians of New Spain (1568) - The Indians did not know the remedy against smallpox…many succumbed also to hunger because, all taking sick at the same time, they were unable to assist one another. There was no one to give them bread or anything else. In many places it happened that all of the same household died. Since it was impossible to bury all the dead in order to remove the offensive odor that came from the corpses, their houses were [destroyed], and thus their house became their [tomb].
The New England Epidemics
William Bradford, Of Plymouth Plantation (1651) - [They fell down so generally of this disease as they were in the end not able to help one another, nor not to make a fire nor to fetch a little water to drink, nor any to bury the dead. But would strive as long as they could, and when they could procure no other means to make fire, they would burn the wooden trays and dishes they ate their meat in, and their very bows and arrows. And some would crawl out on all fours to get a little water, and sometimes die by the way and not be able to get in again.]
Paul Kelton, “Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival,” Ethnohistory **(2004) - [**Smallpox infected some Upper Creek towns and threatened to spread throughout the Creek Confederacy. The Indians, however, “cut off every kind of communication” with infected villages and posted sentinels “at proper places…” Such measures reportedly worked.]
Outbreaks in the Ohio River Valley and Great Lakes
Thomas Hutchin’s Journal, August 1762, Facing East From Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (2001) - [On] the 20th, the above Indians met, and the Ouiatanon Chief spoke in behalf of his and the Kickapoo Nations as follows: '"Brother, we are very thankful to Sir William Johnson for sending you to enquire into the state of the Indians. We assure you we are rendered very miserable at present on account of a severe sickness that has seized almost all our people, many of which have died lately, and many more likely to die….]
Daniel K. Richter, Facing East From Indian Country: A Native History of Early America (2001) - [Despite such horrors, in any single epidemic many survived; statistically, the odds were a little better than one in two. Those who caught and endured smallpox would be immune to it for the rest of their lives…new peoples formed from pieces of the old. Most of the Native American nations that survive to our day were, to one degree or another, created in the melting pot set boiling by 17th century epidemics.
The Five Nations Iroquois raided far and wide to replenish their disease ravaged population. One 19th century descendent recalled “Their plan was to select for adoption from the prisoners, and captives, and fragments of tribes whom they conquered. These captives were equally divided among each of the tribes, were adopted, and served to make good their losses [from smallpox].”]
William Whipple Warren, History of the Ojibway People, Based Upon Traditions and Oral Statements (1885) - […Every day, however, their numbers decreased, as they fell sick and died. Out of the party, which must have numbered a considerable body of warriors, but four survived to return home to their village at Dead River. [In 1781]They brought with them the fatal disease that soon depopulated this great village, which is said to have covered a large extent of ground, and the circumstance of the great mortality which ensued on this occasion at this spot, in the ranks of the Kenisteno and Assineboine, has given the river the name which it now bears Ne-bo, or Death River. In trying to run qway from the fatal epidemic, the Ojibways of this village spread the contagion to Rainy Lake, which village also it almost depopulated. From thence by the route of Pigeon River it reached Lake Superior at Grand Portage, and proceeded up the lake to Fond du Lac, where its ravages were also severely felt, and where the Pillager party on their return from Mackinaw caught the infection, and taking it to Sandy Lake…
The loss of lives occasioned by this disease in the tribes of the allied Kenistenos and Assineboines, amounted to several thousands. And the loss among the Ojibways, as near as can be computed from their accounts at the present day, amounted to not less than fifteen hundred, or two thousand. It did not, luckily, spread generally, over the country occupied by the tribe, and its ravages were felt almost exclusively in the section and villages which have been designated.]
Great Plains Smallpox Outbreaks
Kim E. Nielsen, A Disability History of the United States (2012) - [People of the Kiowa nation in what are now Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico tell a story in which a Kiowa man encounters Smallpox, riding a horse through the plain.
The man asks, “Where do you come from and what do you do and why are you here?” Smallpox answers, “I am one with the white men – they are my people as the Kiowas are yours. Sometimes I travel ahead of them and sometimes behind. But I am always their companion and you will find me in their camps and their houses.” “What can you do?” the Kiowa asks. “I bring death,” Smallpox replies. “My breath causes children to wither like young plants in spring snow. I bring destruction. No matter how beautiful a woman is, once she has looked at me she becomes as ugly as death. And to men I will not bring death alone, but the destruction of their children and the blighting of their wives. The strongest of warriors will go down before me. No people who have looked on me will ever be the same.”]
Cherokee Oral History from 1830s, ***“***Avoiding the Smallpox Spirits: Colonial Epidemics and Southeastern Indian Survival,” Ethnohistory (2004) - L[ong ago the Indians were afflicted with some very awful diseases which do not now prevail. One of these differed from the smallpox, or yaws, yet occasioned dreadful sores in the flesh. When any one in a family was taken with that disorder the diseased person was removed, and had a hut, or tent, raised at a distance from any other habitation, and there lived alone. Then the priest was sent for to cleanse the dwelling just left by the diseased, as if some person had died in it. After this should any one touch the diseased, he would be unclean as if he had touched a dead body.”]
"If I Live to Return I May Have Courage to War With 'Em" - The Letter That Helped Eradicate Smallpox
Lady Mary Wortley Montagu is often credited as being the person to popularize the conception of inoculation among Europeans. Although it was well known before her letter in 1717 in the Middle East, it was not at all in Europe or the Americas. Her letter was subsequently published in the Turkish Embassy Letters and brought attention to the process of inoculation, and latter vaccination:
[ Letter to [Sarah Chiswell], dated at Adrianople, 1 April 1717
I am going to tell you a thing that I am sure will make you wish yourself here. The smallpox so fatal and so general amongst us is here entirely harmless by the invention of engrafting (which is the term they give it). There is a set of old women who make it their business to perform the operation. Every autumn in the month of September, when the great heat is abated, people send to one another to know if any of their family has a mind to have the smallpox. They make parties for this purpose, and when they are met (commonly 15 or 16 together) the old woman comes with a nutshell full of the matter of the best sort of smallpox and asks what veins you please to have opened. She immediately rips open that you offer to her with a large needle (which gives you no more pain than a common scratch) and puts into the vein as much venom as can lie upon the head of her needle, and after binds up the little wound with a hollow bit of shell, and in this manner opens 4 or 5 veins. The Grecians have commonly the superstition of opening one in the middle of the forehead, in each arm and on the breast to mark the sign of the cross, but this has a very ill effect, all these wounds leaving little scars, and is not done by those that are not superstitious, who choose to have them in the legs or that part of the arm that is concealed.
The children or young patients play together all the rest of the day and are in perfect health till the 8th [day]. Then the fever begins to seize 'em and they keep their beds 2 days, very seldom 3. They have very rarely above 20 or 30 [spots] in their faces, which never mark, and in 8 days time they are as well as before their illness. Where they are wounded there remains running sores during the [pox], which I don't doubt is a great relief to it. Every year thousands undergo this operation, and the French ambassador says pleasantly that they take the smallpox here by way of diversion as they take [a bath] in other countries. There is no example of any one that has died in it, and you may believe I am very well satisfied of the safety of the experiment since I intend to try it on my dear little son. I am patriot enough to take pains to bring this useful invention into fashion in England, and I should not fail to write to some of our doctors very particularly about it if I knew any one of 'em that I thought had virtue enough to destroy such a considerable branch of their revenue for the good of mankind, but that [the pox] is too beneficial to them not to expose to all their resentment the hardy wight that should undertake to put an end to it. Perhaps if I live to return I may, however, have courage to war with 'em.
Upon this occasion, admire the heroism in the heart of your friend, etc.]
Considering smallpox has killed 500 million in history but since 1980 has been eradicated through the use of inoculation and vaccination, her letter certainly made an impact on humanity.
In my spare time I host a history podcast about crime, criminals, and their social context before the year 1918. You can check it out here.
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2020.02.08 12:41 mthmchris What the coronavirus forcing me in lockdown's taught me about cooking; plus, how to make Mantou (馒头)

So there’s an offchance you might recognize my username: I’m the dude that’s posted weekly Chinese recipes here for the last… couple years or so. Together with my fiancé (who’s from Guangdong), we live in Shunde, China – a small city a bit south of Guangzhou on the Macau side of the delta.
I’m sure you’ve been inundated with news about the most recent coronavirus outbreak over on this side of the world – I certainly don’t want to pile on and make you any more anxious than you need to be. That’s not my goal: social media does a good enough job with that as is. It’s just that… I feel like this time’s given me some personal insights on food and cooking that I haven’t really had the chance to internalize in the past. Maybe everything I’m about to write is all obvious to you, I don’t know. But I figured I’d share regardless.
The situation we’ve found ourselves in
See, for the past two weeks or so, the city we live has more or less… shut down. People don’t go outside unless they have to – we take our dog for walks up on the roof of our apartment complex, make quick runs to 7/11 for supplies every two days or so (because I mean… alcohol is pretty much mandatory in a time like this), and… that’s pretty much it. Restaurants are for the most part all closed down. The city is essentially on the economic equivalent of life support – the only things that’re open are convenience stores, grocery stores, and pharmacies. There’s checkpoints and roadblocks entering and leaving the city. Hell, every time we leave or enter our apartment complex we’re checked for symptoms by the doorman. The only people that dare to go outside without a medical mask are those unlucky sods that didn’t get the chance to buy any before supplies ran out.
Now I don’t mean to paint too apocalyptic of a picture here. We live in Shunde, not Wuhan (which’s tragically borne the brunt of all this). A lot of these measures are precautionary, and… you sort of get used to it all. It sucks, no doubt. But it says a lot about human psychology just how quickly a new normal can become… normal.
Feeding yourself is an interesting challenge, however. Completely by happy accident, out of any of our friends or family we’re probably the most prepared for this kind of situation. We do a YouTube cooking thing, after all. We test a lot of recipes. Our cabinets, fridges, freezers are stocked with leftovers, sauces, nuts, dried seafood and mushrooms, frozen meats, pickles, tubers, grains… shit, we could probably live for a month off our food stock alone and not starve. And while we’re far from chefs, I do like to think we know a thing or two about cooking… so at least a portion of that month might actually be rather tasty.
What I just wasn’t mentally prepared for, however, was the shortage of fresh vegetables. Veggies were pretty much the first thing to go after medical masks. If you’re anything like me, the thought of that makes you feel… claustrophobic. No fresh vegetables for potentially weeks on end. The walls start closing in…
Luckily of course, we don’t live in the epicenter of all this. Where we live at least, you can get fresh vegetables. It’s just not super easy. Supermarkets get one shipment in a day and you pretty much have to order online ~30 minutes from that time before they sell out. You pretty much don’t have a choice in what you get – when you’re in that window you’ll take what you can get. Chilis, carrots, and broccoli are usually available. Anything else is a crapshoot.
But it’s fine. Buy what you can. Pickiness is luxury.
What this does to your mindset
I think everyone that’s a devoted homecook is pretty experienced with cleaning out their fridge before stuff goes bad. We’ve all had those fuck it, let’s feed myself stews, sandwiches, and stir-fries. Some of them might’ve actually been pretty good! To me at least, that’s the ultimate test of the skill of a cook. A novice sees a sparsely populated refrigerator and thinks, “delivery”. An experienced cook can look at that same refrigerator and can see… possibility.
There’s three ways that make our current situation unique to that… ever so common experience:
  1. We have time. Lots of it. Too much, really. The epidemic has been a mandatory extended vacation for the majority of the country.
  2. We don’t have much choice in ingredients. While similar to the normal exercise, we have this weird overabundance of some ingredients together with a shortage of others. Way too much carrot…
  3. The supplies must last. What’s really the crux of the what’s made this situation such a unique feeling to me. Nothing is wasted. Every square millimeter of that broccoli’s used. I’m careful with how much aromatics I use. Because like, while it’s quite likely we’d be able to get garlic in the next time we squeeze in a food order, you never know.
All of these factors force you to be creative – day in and day out. You approach each meal differently. You don’t enter the kitchen with the mindset of “what do I feel like eating?” You enter it asking the question, “what’s the best thing I can possibly make with the resources I have?”
Cooking with this kind of scarcity mindset’s been… eye-opening. An entirely different perspective. There’s a lot of rambling online about “creative constraint” – how limitations force you to be creative. Much of it has the tone of pseudo-scientific self-help bullshit (and given the replication crisis in psychology, who knows if there’s a solid scientific foundation for the idea), but after these couple weeks… I think it’s true. I mean… some of the best art happens with limitations – poetry in meter, painting on a canvas.
Some other random shit I’ve internalized:
I’ll go over some of the stuff we’ve whipped up in the lockdown below, but first… there’s something that I’ve been mulling over for a while. I have zero clue if any of this’ll make sense, I’m kind of working through this shit myself. Hopefully my ramblings aren’t too boring…
Why I think modern cuisine kinda sucks:
There’s something that’s bothered me for a while. Stay with me here.
Think of almost any dish that you can name. Anywhere in the world. Chinese food, French food, whatever. There’s probably 95% chance that that dish – or at least what you would recognize as that dish was first invented during the time period of 1750 – 1950. A few examples:
For any of these, you could obviously quibble about the exact dates. E.g. slaves in Louisiana were eating a gumbo-esque Okra stew that was labelled ‘gumbo’ since the early to mid 1700s, 1802 was simply the first recorded instance of the dish. You could do this exercise the list over, of course – hell, fermented narezushi can be traced all the way back to 2nd century AD China.
But as you stand back, a mosaic begins to emerge. First thing you notice? Much of what we consider ‘cuisine’ is… surprisingly modern. Like, I know with Chinese food there’s almost an assumption that most of the food has thousands of years of history or something… nope! While it’s definitely cool that there’s a few dishes that you can trace back to the Song dynasty or even earlier… like it is the world over, most of the innovation (on the level of individual dishes, at least) seemed to happen post 1750. Second thing you notice? Most of the innovation stops around the time of world war two. Post war? The landscape of newly invented foods seems… pretty barren.
The question of why has… knawed on me ever since I saw those puzzle pieces. Maybe it’s a mirage. Maybe if you were standing in 1870 England and you fired up your Victorian steampunk Babbage-engine equivalent of Wikipedia, you’d find all the dishes you loved seem to have been invented in the years of 1600-1800? Who knows. Food history is murky as all hell. After all, throughout the course of human civilization, people tend to write about Kings and Revolutionaries and Conquerors… not the cooks that fed them. But I think we at least need to entertain the notion that maybe there was some sort of special sauce that led to that Cambrian explosion of dishes in those two centuries.
I’m still not sure if I have an answer – in fact, I’m pretty sure that I don’t. Some possible reasons for the upsurge of recorded dishes mid 18th century:
  1. The Columbian exchange/the entire colonial project introduced novel ingredients from around the world and touched almost every society. Obviously this process started in the 16th century, but it was a couple centuries yet before it people started eating tomatoes in Italy and chilis in Sichuan.
  2. The development of the restaurant. Restaurants became common in China in the Song dynasty (I believe, don’t hold me to that) and in the West in the 19th century. This seems to coincide with a greater diversity in recorded dishes in both those places.
  3. The printing press could be another possibility. The dates aren’t quite as neat though, as the first printed cookbook was in 1485. But cookbooks began gaining popularity in the mid 17th century, so maybe.
Or perhaps any number of those reasons. Or perhaps a combination. I don’t know, I’m far from a historian. As to some possible culprits of the decline of cooking:
  1. The electric refrigerator became commonplace in 1940s, potentially killing the creativity-inducing ‘scarcity mindset’
  2. Women in the workplace became much more common post war. Obviously a very good and beneficial development from a societal perspective, but perhaps the loss of half of society devoted to the job of cooking may have harmed cuisine?
  3. Mass production of full meals – in the form of TV dinners and began in earnest in the post-war period.
Again, I’m not sure the answer. If you pressed me before this whole coronavirus lockdown episode, I’d probably have told you that modernism and mass production is to blame. Now… I’m not so sure.
I think time has something to do with it, potentially. I can’t seem to find any good data on the topic for the pre-war period, but in 1965 women in America spent – on average – two hours a day cooking. Now women spend an average of 51 minutes (men, 22 minutes… c’mon guys…). Despite what the “QUICK AND EASY!!!!!!” bloggers of the world tell you, you can prepare much better food in the time of two hours than you can in 22 minutes.
Mix that with a dash of scarcity induced creative limitation? The entire society over? That seems like a recipe for some good food.
Why modern ‘fusion’ is boring:
Which brings us to the other great culinary mystery our time: why does fusion suck so hard?
Because I mean, if you look at cuisines around the world… the cultures at the intersection of great migrations or trade routes seem to have some pretty damn interesting food. Situated in the middle of the silk road, Uighur cuisine is an awesome mix between Northwestern Han Chinese and other central Asian foods. Sichuanese food, meanwhile, was the product of one of the most massive internal migrations of human history, when the province was repopulated by people from Hunan and Shandong after a devasting war (the Qing government kinda killed… everyone). The food in the Malacca straights, with the mix of Southeast Asian, Indian and Chinese flavors is aggressively awesome. Istanbul – at the crossroads of Occident and Orient - is one of the world’s great food cities.
So why, despite all of our best efforts in the past forty years, have our culinary mashups seemed to go basically nowhere? Like, seriously. With a touch of digging, you can have an entire globe’s worth of ingredients available to you. With the smallest amount of gumption, you can have authentic recipes and techniques the world over demonstratedto you in video form.
When it was just out-of-touch white American chefs mindlessly smushing together high end French and Japanese food in the 80s, you could kind of get why “fusion” sucked: it was pretty much the dictionary definition of pretention. But now… now we have all these resources… now we have so much more diversity in chefs… and the best the great culinary minds of our generation can come up with is… fucking Kung Pao Pastrami? Seriously?
It circles back to the importance of limitations, I think. Limitations help break you out of functional fixedness - i.e. limiting yourself to using an object only in the way it’s traditionally used. The most famous example of this is the “candle box problem” in psychology:
Participants were shown a picture containing several products on a table: a candle, a pack of matches, and a box of tacks, all of which were next to a wall. Participants’ task was to figure out how to attach the candle to the wall by using only the objects on the table, so that the candle burns properly and does not drip wax on the table or the floor.
This is the answer, if you’re curious. Now again, I don’t like using psychology studies to prove a point because (a) I am not a psychologist and (b) there’s a rich history of other not-psychologist-people twisting studies and taking them out of context in order to peddle BS. But with that preface out of the way, I still think the concept of functional fixedness can at least help us give some sort of framework as to why fusion – still – sucks.
Let’s take a look at this Wagyu Beef Bao Bun from Wolfgang Puck. I’m sure it tastes fine, I’m not going to argue otherwise. But what I will argue is that that dish is goddam boring, and probably not worth the premium.
Why? The “Bao Bun” there (god, I hate that translation) is simply conceptualized as sandwich bread. It’s not interesting, it’s just… a more instagrammable potato roll. So many of these trendy ‘Bao’ creations throughout the OECD are just hipsters putting Asian shit on steamed buns and the media patting them on the back for their ingenuity. But there’s nothing ingenious there. It’s… a sandwich. A decade later, food trends’ll move onto something else, and we’ll forget the Bao craze even happened. Because at their core, most of these dishes are… forgettable.
I don’t mean to be too much of a critic. The food industry is hard… I don’t blame any chef for doing what they have to to make a decent living (it’s really food media that can be cringy). But I think we can do better. One way out of functional fixedness is the “generic parts technique”. If you don’t mind a quick copy/paste:
For each object, you need to decouple its function from its form. McCaffrey shows a highly effective technique for doing so. As you break an object into its parts, ask yourself two questions. "Can I subdivide the current part further?" If yes, do so. "Does my current description imply a use?" If yes, create a more generic description involving its shape and material. For example, initially I divide a candle into its parts: wick and wax. The word "wick" implies a use: burning to emit light. So, describe it more generically as a string. Since "string" implies a use, I describe it more generically: interwoven fibrous strands. This brings to mind that I could use the wick to make a wig for my hamster. Since "interwoven fibrous strands" does not imply a use, I can stop working on wick and start working on wax. People trained in this technique solved 67% more problems that suffered from functional fixedness than a control group. This technique systematically strips away all the layers of associated uses from an object and its parts.”
This is why so much innovation in food happened around the Columbian exchange, I feel. People were introduced to novel new ingredients, not novel new foods. So you get interesting shit like people in Guizhou fermenting tomatoes into a paste and using it as a base for sour soup catfish hotpot, or people in France pounding potatoes until sticky and mixing it with cheese.
So I think one good way to make more… organic fusion is to simply grab an ingredient from another culture and just keep it in your fridge. Bonus points if you have no fucking clue how it’s actually used. In time, you’ll find what to do with it.
Like, with the burgeoning popularity of Lao Gan Ma chili crisp, I heard some people online talk about how they liked it together with a bagel and cream cheese. I thought that sounded weird as hell, so obviously I had to try it. And you know what? Pretty good. Weirdly works well together - vastly more interesting than anything I’ve seen out of these ‘fusion-y’ restaurants. Because anyone can mix together some fish and shit and call it ‘poke’. Lao Gan Ma with cream cheese? That’s the kind of vision that only the most desperately inebriated could possibly concoct…
A list of stuff that we’ve cooked during this lockdown:
Now, I think I probably over emphasized my points in these last two rambly… sections. I’m obviously no visionary chef. I hold precisely zero illusions otherwise. I’m going to list out the stuff we’ve whipped up in the past two weeks, and you’ll probably say to yourself “uh, dude… really, that’s it? The David Changs of the world make way more interesting stuff than that”. And… I’d 100% agree. Not claiming otherwise.
What I would say though is that I do think some of these concoctions have been surprisingly good. And this? This is from just two weeks of staying inside. Could you imagine an entire society of people with a lifetime of experience with the same sort of mindset? Think of all the stuff they’d invent! No wonder traditional food is so damn interesting the world over…
In any event, in rough order of how much I liked them:
  1. Guizhou-style Laoguo sizzling pan stir-fry, with Oaxaca cheese, Lao Gan Ma, and flour tortillas. So in Guizhou there’s a style of eating called Shuicheng Laoguo - looks like this, basically you toss a stir-fry on a sizzling pan and slowly munch on it (though some varieties’ll also toss raw stuff on the pan to let it cook/toast). This was mixed vegetables with black pepper pork chop, seasoned with mianchi (red miso), Hunan chili sauce, soy sauce, Hoisin, and chili garlic sauce. Usually it’s dipped in seasoned chili flakes, but we’ve just been using Lao Gan Ma black soybean chili. For the Oaxaca cheese, we just melted it on the pan bit by bit… then tossed in a flour tortilla (I know those were kinda overly thick, was trying out a new recipe) – the mix of Oaxaca cheese and douchi really, really worked. Heavily recommended, this was awesome – some restaurant should really serve this somewhere (probably in Guizhou… would be way easier to convince Guiyuang people to eat Laoguo with Mexican cheese than try to educated American restaurant-goers how to eat Laoguo-style). Really, the more I pay around with the flavors I kinda think Gui-Mex should be the thing lol. This would be even better with masa tortillas imo.
  2. Tomato sauce with spicy fermented paste over Northern Chinese ‘cat ear’ noodles, with stuffed lotus root on the side. I know this really doesn’t look like much, but we got a small shipment of tomatoes one day and I thought to myself ‘eh, alright, I’ll whip up a quick roasted tomato sauce, why not’. No onion… but hey, whatever. I was running a touch low on tomato paste, so on a whim I reached for Guizhou fermented tomato paste – it’s the base of the aforementioned sour catfish hotpot, slightly spicy and pretty intensely sour. At first I was kinda pissed at myself for potentially screwing up the tomato sauce – the sour notes were totally cool, but the heat was… distracting. Sliced up a bit of carrot, tossing it in with water to let it all cook down. After that and seasoning with a bit of sugar, MSG, fish sauce, and black pepper… it actually really, really worked. Topped it over some freshly whipped up cat ear noodles, and ate alongside stuffed lotus root.
  3. Blended Mexican-style hotsauce with Sichuan chilis and Laozao fermented rice. This one is kind of cheating because it was something that I first developed with a buddy of mine who runs a Mexican restaurant in Shenzhen. The original task was “make a house hot sauce that’s kind of like Tapatio but using Chinese chilis”. I ended up being really proud of the stuff. I won’t bore you will all of the details, but two cool points I think are (1) the water the chilis are blended with are soaked with Sichuan peppercorn – if you soak Sichuan peppercorn in this way, you’ll only get the floral quality, not the numbingness and (2) the vinegar is rice vinegar, Laozao fermented rice was also tossed in. The latter bit adds a bit of sweetness and a lot of complexity. This stuff was perfect drizzled on Mac N Cheese.
  4. Pan-fried Guozengzong with the aforementioned hot sauce. Steph’s mother’s side is from Zhaoqing – city outside of Guangzhou renowned for their Zongzi (sticky rice dumplings). This is what they look like – the best sort are stuffed with fatty pork belly and mungbean. It’s a tradition to make them around Chinese New Year, and after swinging by to Steph’s parent’s place we got… loaded up with a bunch of them. In Vietnam they’ve also got a very similar thing called banh chung, which they’ll sometimes smush down into a pan and fry it. Pan-frying this stuff is awesome, and it also went great dipped in that vinegar-y hot sauce above.
  5. Pork Belly and Kimchi Sandwich. Ate way too many of these things. This was thinly sliced pork belly that we had in the freezer from testing Suanni Bairou – Sichuan Spicy Garlic Pork. Basically, the pork belly is blanched until cooked through, then left to sit in the pot for ~3 hours to get a bit more tender. You slice it super super thin… like, 1mm wide. Makes for an ideal sandwich meat to be honest. Roughly equal parts pork belly to kimchi (maybe a touch more pork belly), together with a spread of equal parts Kewpie mayo, Dijon mustard, and Kimchi pickling juice. This was on some homemade crunchy wheat bread but I think that Rye would probably work best. Just a simple, good thing. Tried it with cheese inside too... doesn’t need it.
  6. Yunnan colored steamed rice with fried pork mince and pickled chili, together with the aforementioned hot sauce. The mince was done by hand, ala Macanese minchi. Really great stuff to top over rice, but unlike minchi Steph also tossed in some Hunan pickled chilis in (which can really bring the heat). Great with the hot sauce. The bit on the bottom left is just some (totally not homemade) Teochew taro roll that we had in our freezer.
  7. Stir-fried Mantou Buns. We were doing a Mantou (steamed bun) video for the channel, so we’ve had a lot of leftover Mantou. One thing we’ve heard that in the North of China, some people’ll cube leftover mantou and actually stir-fry them. We have no idea if this is actually how people do it, but on a whim Steph very lightly oiled a wok, toasted/fried the Mantou until golden brown, and seasoned with the same Chinese BBQ spice mix that you’d have on cumin roast lamb. Pretty awesome, very reminiscent of the grilled Mantou buns that you get at Chinese BBQ joints.
And again… I’m not trying to say that our cooking is awesome, or interesting, or anything. I know a solid chunk of you probably clicked on a couple of those links and thought to yourself “I dunno, looks kinda shitty”. We’re no chefs. There’s a reason we devote ourselves to researching authentic dishes/techniques to the very best of our ability… because precisely no one is interested in “mthmchris and leeleesteph’s wacky fusion fun hour”.
What I am saying though is that this all’s forced us to be the most inventive cooks we’ve ever been in our entire lives… and this’s just from two nobodies with a camera over the course of two weeks. Imagine millions of people, many lifetimes over, with the same mindset.
Iterate that function for a while. That is why ‘authenticity’ in food is a valuable goal, despite it being a… controversial word in many circles. It’s not that cuisine can never change, or that there’s only one recipe for any given dish. It’s about respecting the idea that (1) the generations that came before us were probably much better cooks than we are and (2) you can generally find a lot more interesting food by looking back, by peeking in dusty corners, than you can by inventing your own hack or whatever.
That’s not to say that we all can’t be inventive, or have fun being creative. But when I’m saying that I want an “authentic” version of say, Bouillabaisse sauce… what I’m saying is that I’m looking for a recipe that is connected to and respects those cultural traditions.
What else we’ve eaten
Of course, not everything’s been mashups or whatever. Lots of bread and noodles (heavily recommend Ken Forkish’s Flour, Water, Salt, Yeast by the way… having some nice western-style bread during this time’s been awesome). The aforementioned Laoguo, Cantonese claypot rice, and Mac N’ Cheese have been other staples (luckily the 7/11 near us sells small cartons of fresh milk).
But probably what we’ve eaten the most of has been Mantou – steamed buns. Mantou with chili crisp (if steamed) or condensed milk (if fried) has been my go-to snack. We’ve had a lot of them from testing them for the channel, but they’re so great to have around that we’re actually whipping up more, even after we’ve made the video (a rarity for us, usually we’re so tired of a dish after testing it’s months before we circle back).
So to actually give you some actual content here, outside of my insane bourbon-and-cabin-fever-induced ramblings… here’s how to make some Mantou.

How to Make Mantou Buns

So there’s three primarily types of Mantou buns:
  1. Northern Laomian Mantou. In the North, mantou are traditionally made with a sourdough starter called laomian (老面), which’s then mixed with alkaline ingredients like sodium carbonate to balance the taste. They come in two varieties – hard and soft. The taste itself is rather plain because they’re meant to be eaten alongside other things as a meal.
  2. Southwestern Laozao Mantou. A really interesting Mantou from Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan… this kind of Mantou also uses a starter, but interestingly uses fermented rice (醪糟) to make it. Usually yeast is also added to the dough as well, making for some super-fluffy Mantou.
  3. Southern Mantou. These Mantou are a bit sweeter, and rely on baking powder and yeast. I’d venture that these are probably the most common Mantou that you can find at restaurants, especially abroad.
Eventually we’ll want to cover all three, but the southern mantou are the most straightforward of the bunch so that’s what I’ll show you today.
Video is here if you’d like a visual to follow along. Seeing as there’s not really too much to this, I’ll try to be a bit more brief from here on out.
Ingredients, Mantou Buns:
Baker’s percentages in brackets. I’ll try to remember to do this.
  1. All Purpose Flour (中筋面粉), 200g. For reference the AP we use here in China is 10.8% protein.
  2. Water, 90g. Divided into two bowls, each with 45g. We’ll get to why in a second. [45%]
  3. Sugar, 20g. [10%]
  4. Instant Dry Yeast (酵母), 1 tsp. Or 2 grams. [1%]
  5. Baking Powder (泡打粉), 1 tsp. Or 2 grams. [1%]
And if you end up deep frying these, you’ll also want the totally-mandatory condensed milk to dip them in.
Process, Mantou Buns:
  1. Thoroughly mix the sugar with half the water and the yeast in a separate bowl with the other half. This dough has a lot of sugar and yeast in it. Because a high-sugar environment can actually draw moisture out of and damage yeast, we’ll keep these separate for now.
  2. Sift together the flour and the baking powder.
  3. Slowly drizzle in the yeast water into the baking powdeflour, aiming for the dry bits. Then do the same with the sugar water. I always like mixing with a single chopstick for this kind of step.
  4. Knead for eight minutes. Or alternatively in a stand mixer on speed 1 for the same time (dough hook attachment). This is the final consistency you’re looking for.
  5. Cover, and let the dough rest for 30 minutes.
  6. Either by hand or using a pasta maker on the widest setting, roll the dough out thin. Fold it in half, then pass it through again – six times in all. This step will get us that classic smooth skin that Southern-style Mantou are known for.
  7. With the dough in a sheet now, tightly roll it all up into a log, then roll it a touch longer by hand to get something ~25cm long.
  8. Flour a work surface, place the log on, and gently press down on the bottom. Very gently, just enough to get a bit of an indent in order to get that classic Mantou shape.
  9. With a sharp knife, slight the roll into eight pieces. Don’t try to use a bench scrape for this step – being less sharp, it’d slightly press down on the Mantou and muff up the looks.
  10. Place the mantou on some squares of parchment paper, then in a steamer. Toss the steamer over a wok filled with 28C water, and proof for 15 minutes. Just for standardization sake.
  11. Over the same water, swap your flame to medium-high and bring it to a boil. Once you can see steam pluming out of the crack of the steamer, set your timer for five minutes. We’re steaming this gently so that the Mantou doesn’t rise too fast and form air bubbles on the surface of the skin.
  12. After that time, shut off the heat and don’t peak for five minutes. Then after those five minutes, take them out and enjoy!
Note that one common problem is for the skin of the Mantou to come out a bit wrinkly. This means that you either over-proofed the Mantou or steamed at too high of a heat. It’s ok if one or two out of the batch has a couple wrinkles – you’d rather these be overly fluffy than under-fluffy, after all – but make adjustments if it’s the whole batch.
How to Deep Fry Mantou:
One of the best things you can do with these southern-style Mantou is deep fry them. A couple cups of oil in a wok, heat it up to 175C. Mantou in, and after about 30 seconds give them a flip. Fry for another minute under golden brown, flipping periodically. Out.
It’s a great way to use up slightly stale mantou, and perfect dipped in way too much condensed milk.
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2020.01.15 00:53 CuteBananaMuffin How the discovery of Paititi The lost city of gold" May change Peru for ever

How the discovery of Paititi The lost city of gold
Disclaimer : I don't claim to know anything , it's just a post for discussion , ideas ,theories and opinions . The following paragraphs are copy-paste with the intent to discuss the subject and nothing else.
by Jim Dobson January 11, 2016

Many explorers have died searching for Paititi: the Lost City of Gold, and many became convinced that the city was hidden in the last undiscovered regions of the Amazon.
The infamous journeys to discover Paititi were also what inspired Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to write "The Lost World."
Much has been documented about the divine sense of quest to discover this magical kingdom. From treasure hunters to archaeologists and explorers, Paititi has until now remained the subject of lore and tribal legend spread through generations.
But now, a remote location in the Peruvian Amazon thought to be the legendary Lost City has been discovered and is the target for a professional expedition taking place this summer.

The search for Paititi : The lost city of gold

Inca traditions mention a city, deep in the jungle and east of the Andes area of Cusco which could be the last Incan refuge following the Spanish Conquest.
The Spanish conquistadors pillaged Cusco for its gold and silver, they only discovered a small amount of bounty in the capital, and the bulk of the mass treasure has never been found.
Just recently a Spanish Galleon that sunk over 300 years ago, was discovered off the coast of Columbia and possibly holding billions of dollars worth of treasure looted from Peru.
In 2001, Italian archaeologist Mario Polia discovered the report of a missionary named Andres Lopez in the Vatican archives.
In the document, which dates from 1600, Lopez describes in great detail, a large city rich in gold, silver and jewels, located in the middle of the tropical jungle called Paititi by the natives.
Lopez informed the Pope about his discovery and the Vatican has kept Paititi's location secret for decades.
Due to the remote location of the area, as well as dense mountains that have to be traveled, it is no wonder that Paititi remains so hard to find. Currently drug trafficking, illegal logging and oil mining are overtaking this part of Peru, and many amateur explorers that enter are often killed.
Legendary explorer Greg Deyermenjian explains his extraordinary devotion to the area,
"The quest for Paititi, for the furthest presence of the Incas into the selva (jungle) beyond the ranges, began for me after having visited, in 1981, the site of Vilcabamba, the redoubt of Manco Inca - who did finally rebel against the Spaniards after enduring nearly three years of their increasingly harsh rule - at Espíritu Pampa in the forested plains of La Convención province to the northwest of Machu Picchu.
It was then that I began to hear about a site which lay hidden somewhere off to the east, where the Andes and the Amazonian rain forests meet in a riot of hills, ravines, and isolated peaks, all covered in jungle and crisscrossed by unnavigable boulder-strewn rivers and streams.
And in 1984 I began traveling there, to the north and northeast of Cusco, first in the company of Cusqueño hunters who had made forays well past their holdings in Paucartambo, and then with the Quechua-speaking highland campesinos of Challabamba and Calca that I had met through them."

Famed explorer Greg Deyermenjian

"Beginning in 1994, we allied ourselves with Peru's foremost living explorer, Dr. Carlos Neuenschwander, who had been conducting his own investigation into Paititi and the significance of the Pantiacolla plateau since the 1950's.
We were unable to raise funds sufficient for a helicopter, so we found ourselves following branches of the main trail that traverses the Paucartambo Mountains, down to the jungles of Callanga, southeast of Mameria, where we investigated potential sites that were spotted from the air by Dr. Neuenschwander years before.
We found the very rough and decayed remains of an ancient Incan, as well as an apparently pre-Incan habitation, and we made a first ascent of another legendary tropical peak, known as "Llaqtapata".
On our way back through the remote and dusty highlands of the Cordillera de Lares/Lacco that overlooks the Río Paucartambo/Mapacho, we passed through impressive and finely constructed Incan sites such as Tambocancha and Uncayoc, which must have at one time guarded these routes.

Gregory Deyermejian (far left) on one of his numerous quests for Paititi (Photo By Javier Zardoya)

By 1999, we were in a position to take a helicopter from Cusco, North to the Plateau of Pantiacolla, thanks to our additional alliance with German film maker Heinz von Matthey.
We left the helicopter at the furthest point that we had followed as far as we could in 1993. We passed a relatively elaborate Incan retaining wall above the trail, then descended to the headwaters of the Río Timpía.
Over the course of the next week we saw that the rough and totally overgrown trail continued ever downward, through the increasingly broken and precipitous territory of the valley of the Timpía.
It was easier to follow the river itself, with its raging waters and huge slippery boulders and logs, than to try to directly follow the totally overgrown and uprooted remnant of a trail clinging to the valley wall a few hundred meters above.

Thierry Jamin during an expedition in the National Park of Manú, a delicate passage on an undiscovered river. (Photo by Thierry Jamin)

After having climbed now upriver, up and out of the cloud forest, to emerge back at the high alturas where we had begun, we soon ran into some wandering vaqueros, cowboys, who had driven the cattle to these lonely grasslands for unlimited grazing.
From them we learned of an enchanted lake shaped like a figure "8", astride ancient ruins, in a perpetually rainy and cold area to the northwest.
Thanks to the preternatural sense of direction of my long-term expedition partner, Paulino Mamani, as well as my GPS and an aerial photography generated map which showed such an unnamed lake in the area we approached, we found it.
And here were a series of low Incan platforms and retaining walls, which, along with the remnants of Incan trail and retaining wall closer to the Timpía, constitute the furthest Incan remains yet found directly north of the Incan capital of Cusco.

In the valley of Lacco,Thierry Jamin's expedition team transports supplies. (Photo by Thierry Jamin)
It is here that an unnamed mountain range overlooks the Río Yungaria, a tributary of the Callanga, in the tangled jungles between the zone of Mameria to the north and that of Callanga to the south.
I saw the beginnings of this isolated tropical range in 1994, when, from the confluence of the Río Yungaria and the Río Callanga, where Paulino and I were searching for some gigantic terraces that Dr. Neuenschwander had spotted years before from the air, I marveled at how precipitously the territory behind the Yungaria soared upward and away from the river, beyond sight.
Then in 1995, from a high perch on the eastern edge of the Andes, as we were ascending from the valley of the headwaters of the Callanga to the highlands to the west, I caught a glimpse of the mighty peaks of this strange massif, which seemed to reach to a height quite uncommon for tropical mountains out beyond the Andes: while the entire range was enveloped in what appeared to be a thick mantle of green vegetation, the actual peaks were shrouded in what appeared to be perpetual cloud around the summits. Adjacent areas, as described by long-time Paititi seeker, Padre Juan Carlos Polentini, are said to harbor the extensive ancient stone ruins that could be the legendary Paititi."
NOTE: Some portions of Greg Deyermenjian's writings have not been edited due to space restrictions. Visit complete manuscript here.
Even civilian explorers like California based adventurer and photographer Fernando S. Gallegos have been inspired to explore the area.
His detailed and fascinating account of reaching Pusharo, deep in the Amazonian jungle after surviving tarantula swarms and being stranded in torrential rains, shows exactly how arduous and dangerous the journey is.
I asked Fernando what compelled him to take such dangerous journeys and he explained:
"I want to rekindle that forgotten sense of curiosity that we all seem to lose when we enter adulthood.
The thought of discovering some physical link to that part of our imagination we deem as unrealistic or impossible is motivation enough to reassure myself that perhaps some greater beyond all expectation still exists out there waiting to be found."

Explorer Fernando S. Gallegosstanding by the Pusharo petroglyphs along with his guides (photo by Fernando Gallegos)

In my exclusive interview with famed French explorer Thierry Jamin, I was able to get the most updated information as to the next steps in discovering Paititi later this year.
What are your plans for discovering the Lost City of Paititi this summer?
For about twenty years, my team and I dedicated our searches on the tracks of the permanent presence of the Incas in Amazonian forest. We looked for their main center of population: the lost city of Paititi. Since 1998, we have completed about twenty expeditions in the southeast of Peru.
In 2009, we ventured into a lost valley, North of Cusco:
the valley of Lacco.
In Quechua, the word "lacco" means "labyrinth", or "the place where we get lost".
Accompanied by archaeologists from the Ministry of Culture, we were surprised to discover numerous unknown archaeological sites of the modern archaeology: fortresses, small centers of agricultural production, several necropolises and complete cities populated with hundreds of buildings.
These were real "Pompeii Amazonians"! From 2009 till 2013, we continued to discover more than forty complete sites.
Situated on original Incan stone paths, these lost cities seem to lead to the north of Cusco, towards the National Sanctuary of Megantoni. This sanctuary shelters one of the most difficult to access forests in South America. It is the cradle of the Matsiguengas Indians, with whom we have a very good relationship.
Since 2010, several Matsiguengas Indians told us about the existence of a strange mountain, at the top of which would hide the ruins of an old stony city: the legendary city of Paititi. During several years, we tried to locate this mysterious mountain.
Then, in June, 2012, the French company Astrium helped us obtain a series of satellite photos of exploration zone. In certain photos, we localized a very strange mountain of square shape, one thousand meters aside.
We would say a cube, in the heart of the forest, encircled by abysms of a several hundred meters deep.
A site apparently very strategic, easy to defend and impossible to invade.

In the National park of Manú,three young Matsiguengas women of the native community of Mameria. ©Photo : Thierry Jamin

A hundred meters west of this mountain, two twin lakes and a mysterious square lake, seem to confirm the testimonies of the Matsiguengas. All of the legendary traditions assert that Paititi was built near such extents of water.
We tried to reach this mountain in 2011 in vain and then, in 2012, new discoveries in Machu Picchu took away from our search for Paititi. But in 2013 and 2014, other expeditions allowed us to approach our goal of only a few kilometers.
The jungle of Megantoni is dangerous and very difficult to access, especially for a team moving with important supplies. Our diverse expeditions have not allowed us yet to reach the ruins of the lost city.
Nevertheless, the Matsiguengas Indians are convinced: it is at the top of this "well cut" mountain that hide the vestiges of the queen of the South American lost cities.

Ancient map describing location of the Secret City

Tell me about your expedition to that area this year?
We have prepared our next exploration with the objective of reaching the "square mountain" and the lakes by helicopter.
After several unfortunate attempts, we arrived at the conclusion that the helicopter is the only way to reach this zone. If we manage to finance this operation, the expedition will take place in July. It should last three weeks.
We plan to explore the mountain in great detail, but also the lakes, thanks to the use of a ROV (automatic soumarin robot) and with professional divers. Several professional archaeologists will also participate in the operation.
The probability to discover an important archaeological site, of the scale of Machu Picchu, hidden at the top of this mysterious mountain is very big.
I am convinced that we shall soon experience the discovery of Paititi.
Critics have commented that further exploration to these remote indigenous communities will bring disease and cause harm. How do you respond to their criticism?
Communities of the uncontacted Kuga Pakuris Indians live in the Sanctuary of Megantoni, but not in the area we are exploring, which is very difficult to access.
These Indians live in the hunting areas. The area of the "square mountain" is surrounded by vertical walls of nearly a thousand meters high and Kuga Pakuris never go to that area. We are in permanent contact with Matsiguenga of Megantoni tribes, who participate in our expeditions.
This area is part of their territory, rather than the "uncontacted" tribes.
All of our search campaigns are carried out within a legal framework, with the permission and participation of Peruvian authorities (Ministry of Culture and Ministry of Environment - SERNANP)

The French explorer Thierry Jamin, near a chullpa, or funeral tower, in the Inca necropolis of Puccro,valley of Lacco. Photo Thierry JAMIN, 2009.

Can't you just fly over the area and use modern radar LIDAR technology rather than disturbing the environment?
It would be quite possible to use the radar technology, such as LIDAR.
But they are still very expensive for us. And nothing beats field research. The radars cannot perform the exploration in underwater lakes. This is the essence of archaeological research.
On the ground, we use modern technology: GPS, drones, ROV, endoscopic cameras, scanners, etc. And this we can only do on the ground.
The purpose of the operation "Paititi 2016" is to reach the famous "square mountain" by air, with the use of a helicopter. We have never tried that approach before. We want to spread the legend of Paititi through science.
We need science and professional archaeologists to reach the lost city BEFORE the huaqueros or treasure hunters arrive.

In the North of the National Sanctuary of Megantoni, the satellite Pleiades located a strange quadrangular formation of one thousand meters near a mysterious square lake and near twin lakes. The Natives of the region assure that Paititi hides at the top of this mountain. (Photo by Astrium – CNES)
This is the challenge of our research.
We know, for example, that a Spanish team visited last September, near the Sanctuary of Megantoni without any permit, in search of Paititi. They are unfortunately not the only ones.
Our satellite images of the "square mountain" were widely disseminated. Other adventurers, unscrupulous, may try to reach the area clandestinely in search of the legendary gold.
Science must discover the site of Paititi first and return this great historical and archaeological treasure to the hands of the World Heritage Site.
This is the challenge of our 2016 exploration."

Rock face carving by Indians (Photo by Fernando S. Gallegos)

1600: Missionary Andres Lopez discovers Paititi and writes to the Vatican about his findings.
1925: Percy Harrison Fawcett, the inspiration for "Indiana Jones" attempts first exploration to the area. The archaeologist and South American explorer, along with his eldest son disappeared under unknown circumstances during an expedition to find "Z" – his name for the ancient lost city. Brad Pitt is currently shooting the film "The Lost City of Z" about Fawcett's adventure and life.
1954: Hitler's photographer Hans Ertl discovered many Pre-Columbian sites and claimed to have discovered Plato's Atlantis in the Bolivian Altiplano. The Nazi propaganda cinematographer exiled to Bolivia where he went on to shoot the expedition documentary "Paititi".
1958: Peruvian explorer Carlos Neuenschwander Landa led multiple expeditions in search of Paititi. He discovered the Inca stone path, located in the mountains of Paucartambo, and was the first person to describe, document and disseminate Hualla fortress located in the rural area of Calca. In his expeditions he has concentrated on the plateau where he sought the city of Paititi. He eventually wrote the book "Paititi in the mists of History."
1970-2002: Carlos Neuenschwander Landa organizes several expeditions in the national park of Manú in search of the lost city. They land by helicopter at the petroglyphs of Pusharo.
1971: A French-American expedition led by Bob Nichols, Serge Debru and Georges Puel travelled up the Rio Pantiacolla from Shintuya in search of Paititi. The party's guides left after a 30 day agreement expired, and though the three continued on, they never returned. In 1972 Japanese explorer Yoshiharu Sekino contacted Machiguenga Indians in the area and confirmed that the expedition members had been killed by Indians.
1979: French-Peruvian couple Nicole and Herbert Cartagena discover the ruins of Mameria. For the first time, researchers discover inca ruins in Amazonia. This discovery constitutes the first scientific proof of the presence of Paititi.
1984-2011: Various expeditions led by Gregory Deyermenjian. These included the documentation of Incan remains in Mameria, the exploration and documentation of the petroglyphs at Pusharo, exploration and documentation of Manu's Pyramids of Paratoari, and others.
1997: Norwegian biologist Lars Hafskjold set out to discover the ancient tribe of Toromona, the origins of the Paititi legend. He disappeared somewhere in the unexplored parts of Bolivia and has never been found.
2001: The Kota Mama II expedition led by John Blashford-Snell located some significant ancient ruins in the jungle east of Lake Titicaca in Bolivia which are believed to be identical to those discovered earlier by Hans Ertl.
2001: French explorer Thierry Jamin investigated the site of Pantiacolla. The pyramids are in fact natural formations but Jamin discovered several Inca artefacts in the same area.
2002: Polish explorer Jacek Pałkiewicz undertook an expedition under the patronage of the government of Peru upstream on the Madre de Dios River in search of Paititi. He eventually became famous for locating the source of the Amazon River. He subsequently wrote several novels on his explorations including El Dorado, Hunting the Legend.
2004: "Quest for Paititi" exploration team of Gregory Deyermenjian and Ignacio Mamani discovered several important Inca ruins along branches of the Inca Road of Stone at the peak known as Último Punto in the northern part of the Pantiacolla region of Peru.
2005: Thierry Jamin and French-Peruvian Herbert Cartagena studied Pusharo petroglyphs and discovered large geoglyphs in a valley nearby. They reportedly found a "map" showing where Paititi might be located. Further expeditions were set up in the following years.
2009-2011: Various expeditions by Italian researcher Yuri Leveratto who reached one of the Pyramids of Pantiacolla.
2009-2013: Thierry Jamin and his group explores the valleys of Lacco, Chunchusmayo and Cusirini, in the North of the department of Cusco, on the tracks of Paititi. Accompanied by the Peruvian Ministry of Culture, they bring to light forty archeological sites, including Hualla Mocco, Torre Mocco, Lucma Cancha, Llactapata, Apucatina, Pantipallana and Chaupichullo.
2011: British expedition to investigate the Pyramids of Paratoari with Kenneth Gawne, Lewis Knight, Ken Halfpenny, I. Gardiner and Darwin Moscoso as part of the documentary "The Secret of the Incas."
2014: TV host Josh Gates and Gregory Deyermenjian searched for Paititi while filming "Expedition Unknown" for the Travel Channel. They were forced to return after running out of supplies.
2015: Paititi documentary directed by Michel Gomez, for the Peruvian national channel Latina based on Thierry Jamin's book "The Adventurer of the Lost City"
2016: Thierry Jamin will fly with helicopter research teams to further explore the newly discovered possible location of Paititi.

Fernando Gallegos along the Amazon river in search of Paititi (Photo by Fernando S. Gallegos)

Ancient "Lost City" Discovered in Peru
- Official Claims - by Kelly Hearn January 16, 2008 from NationalGeographic Website

Cut stones (top) and masonry walls (bottom) recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ruins of the legendary \"lost city\" of Paititi, according to the mayor of the town where the site were found. Archaeologists are being sent to the site to investigate the claim. Source

Ruins recently discovered in southern Peru could be the ancient "lost city" of Paititi, according to claims that are drawing serious but cautious response from experts.
The presumptive lost city, described in written records as a stone settlement adorned with gold statues, has long been a grail for explorers - as well as a lure for local tourism businesses.
A commonly cited legend claims that Paititi was built by the Inca hero Inkarri, who founded the city of Cusco before retreating into the jungle after Spanish conquerors arrived.
On January 10 Peru's state news agency reported that "an archaeological fortress" had been discovered in the district of Kimbiri and that the district's mayor suggested it was the lost city.
Mayor Guillermo Torres described the ruins as a 430,000-square-foot (40,000-square-meter) fortification near an area known as Lobo Tahuantinsuyo.
Few other details about the site were offered, but initial reports described elaborately carved stone structures forming the base of a set of walls.
The state media report quotes Torres as saying the area will be "immediately declared" a cultural tourism site.
Officials from the Peruvian government's Cusco-based National Institute of Culture (INC) met with Torres on Tuesday, according to Francisco Solís, an INC official.
"It is far too early to make any definitive judgments," Solís told National Geographic News. "We are going to dispatch a team to investigate."
Officials expect more details to emerge in the coming days, he said.
Legend of Paititi
Paititi is believed to have been located somewhere east of the Andes Mountains in the rain forest of southeastern Peru, southwestern Brazil, or northern Bolivia.
In 1600 a missionary reported seeing a large "city of gold" in the region where Paititi is believed to have been built, according to archival records discovered by an Italian archaeologist in 2001.
However, the location of the newfound site falls counter to where historical records indicate Paititi should be, Solís said.
Officials were nonetheless intrigued by the possibilities, he added.
The first task will be to determine if the newfound ruins are the work of the Inca or pre-Inca ethnic groups, Solís said.
Gregory Deyermenjian, a U.S.-based psychologist and explorer who has led many expeditions to investigate the Paititi legend, said many people in the tourism-rich region of Cusco have embraced the legend as a business promotion.
But he said the claims could have merit, as there are still many important sites to be found.
"It is a bit off the beaten path but still within the Inca's reach," Deyermenjian said. "I'm very interested to know more."
Daniel Gade, professor emeritus in geography at the University of Vermont, cautioned about jumping to conclusions.
"Paititi is frequently the first thing people mention when something like this is found," Gade said, adding that there are many ruins in the jungle regions of the area.
submitted by CuteBananaMuffin to conspiracy [link] [comments]

2020.01.04 23:33 dpsychb my friend says subtle things that make me feel weird

[18F] I am currently a freshman in college and I have been friends with one of my distant cousins (lets name her "Alexa") since freshman highschool. i have never felt close to her or comfortable enough to tell her many of my secrets so when i was dating this boy, i sent her our pic bc she asked to see how he looked. I told her not to save the pic since my paretns are pretty strict about dating. A few months later i broke up with my bf. But my friend still had our picture together saved on her phone even though i told her directly that I dont like that she did that. I kept asking her to delete it but she would just ignore or laugh it off. I talked to a few of my close friends about this and they said that Alexa was probably keeping that pic to threaten me someday? Maybe use it in the future.
As i mentioned, my parents are pretty strict about dating and same goes for her parents (since we're related) so she should understand why i keep asking her to delete that pic. I feel like she might send that pic to my parents some day if we ever have any argument or disagreement. Plus thats like the only thing she has on me that could get me in trouble. She smokes, drinks, plays with boys' emotions, and slept with a boy she hadn't even talked to for a week. I am by no means judging her but I feel like shes always trying to drag me down that road?? I have never been interested in smoking or drinking or wtv but she keeps trying to change me?
she smokes weed and kept trying to convince me to smoke as well. I have nothing against weed but i personally just dont want to do it. and one time she joked about how she'll make me eat edibles without letting me know it has weed and she just started laughing.
When i was in the talking phase with my bf(ex) she made fun of him for not doing anything sexual to me. My ex was a good man who respected boundaries and always asked for my consent. Alexa would always make fun of my ex saying that hes ugly and that i should just break up with him and find a better guy. Part of her hatred(?) toward my ex also came from that fact that he was hispanic. Both me and Alexa are east asian. She always had this (idk how to word it) dislike towards hispanic ppl? She would say things like "ew these hispanics are so ...." She always said some racist things but it was really lowkey and whenever i called her out for it she would be like "damn you only taking their side cos your bf is mexican"(my ex was columbian but wtv).
She bashed me for not being out there. She would kinda reverse psychology me(?) and make it seem like I was wrong for not being out there sexually??? She said things like "why dont you wanna have sex with your bf?," or "youre very old fashioned and anti-feminist for being old fashioned." I tried to explain to her that not everyone is the same and that feminism is not about all women being "out there" but its about allowing women to choose what they wish to do with their body/sexuality. Like the things she says sounds "fake deep." Like she tries to sound like shes so progressive and stuff but then she still is very racist and discriminatory against most POC(even other asians).
she also constanlty says this phrase: "Im a really nice person." She says it so much. especially when someone calls her out abt something. For example, she recently started dating this boy and i am also friends with this boy and he asks me for advice abt their relationship and shit but thats a diff story. Basically she ignored him the whole day and didnt pick up her phone. That day she lied to me and made me hang out with her and some tinder boy. I felt so weird bc i was kinda friends with her bf but i didnt know if this counted as cheating?? anyways the next day she lied and told her bf that she was just tired and slept the whole day. idk man im not trynna get involved but i feel bad for her bf cos he told me how much he likes her and stuff. she wasnt even interested in him in the first place. like in the begenning, she even told me "omg should i break his heart lol."
theres more things abt her that just make me feel weird but it wont fit here.

so my question is if i should cut her off or not and how should i do it. bc shes a very manipulaitve and narcissitic person. like she cant take a "no" for an answer and will keep bothering or convincing until i say 'yes' even if that means by lying to me.

she still owes me like $20 which she hasnt paid even tho i asked her 3 times so im just waiting until i get my money back to cut her off lol
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Comment (1pts) in TwoXChromosomes, "Asian Women (+ WoC): How the f do I avoid guys with Asian...", (25 Dec 19):
OK. Someone educate me because I just don't get it. "be my first asian" guys are just as malignant as "I only date asian girls"
So not being willing to date Asian girls at all makes one racist? OK,...
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You mentally retarded. It was literally just explained to you by 4 other posters.
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Jesus Christ. You are using James Bond as an example of women not getting a role in Hollywood?
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Not war torn. Islamic. Sounds like she has been groomed from childhood to be afraid of people.
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I've always been taught that women need to be more suspicious of strangers than men, that you should never stop and help people
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This is the future of every Indian Reservation in BC once the land claims are complete. It is all going to get sold to billionaires.
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16 year old retard, at that. It ain't cool to bully the mentally ill.
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2019.12.09 21:32 Kmudametal Wonderful Journey Pops in Fort Smith Arkansas

Better late than never getting this post up..... but here we go. A historical journey through Fort Smith Arkansas. This is me typing so you know it's going to turn into a Wall-Of-Text of massive proportions. A lot of history here, some of which may not be familiar. If you are interested in history, this will be a good post for you. If not, not so much. :)
The Babymetal Wonderful Journey Pops arrived in Fort Smith in time for me to take them to Los Angeles to attend the Forum concert. The first time I took them out of the box was at the Hotel in Los Angeles. Being on the 5th floor with a view outside, I learned real quick, when there is a McDonald's outside your window, close the drapes. Otherwise Moa Pop is going to become fixated and distracted. Because Moa Pop is still underage, they stayed in the hotel room the night of the pre-party, where a group of Babymetal fans took over a local Bar, leaving the locals wondering what just happened.
The night of the concert, they were able to attend the after party. Where we took over both the front and the back room of the bar. The Pops themselves took photos with some well-known Super fans from across the Atlantic and from across the Pacific. There were a ton of folks taking a lot of photos of the Pops themselves and of themselves with the Pops, but those images have not made it back to us. If you got any, please post them. The Pops witnessed hundreds of fans and hundreds of fans got to see them.
After a good time being had by all, it was time to return to Fort Smith Arkansas. Most people have never heard of Fort Smith but it holds a very distinct place in American History during the 18th century as the last bastion of law and order before entering the Indian Territory to the west. It is also used in many movies pertaining to the "old west". It was Rooster Cogburn's (John Wayne's) home base in True Grit.). The Clint Eastwood movie Hang 'em High is loosely based upon the 'hanging judge" - Judge Isaac Parker, who was based out of Fort Smith. When you see old west movies mentioning "Federal Marshals", those Marshals were based out of Fort Smith Arkansas. The man in charge of all of this was Judge Isaac Parker, aka “The Hanging Judge”.
My initial plans were to take the Wonderful Journey Funko Pops up into God's Country in the Ozark Mountains. Canoeing on the Buffalo River and small-mouth fishing on Crooked Creek. But alas, the time of year they arrived was too late in the season (too cold) to be putting Kayaks in on the rivers, not to mention the rivers and streams were all flooded because of record rainfall. So we were left to investigate the history of Fort Smith.
They started by visiting a Mayan Doll found in an Arkansas cave. How the Mayan figurine arrived in an Arkansas Cave is a mystery. Either the Mayan influence made it much further North than is commonly accepted or a Mayan slave brought by the Spanish placed it there. Regardless, as was noted, there is an odd similarity here.. :). While the Mayan figure is a mystery, the Plains Indians and their historical ancestors from the Clovis Culture to the Mound Builders, are not, albeit most of that history has been destroyed at the alter of "Manifest Destiny". How many are aware that North America had cultures that built pyramids rivaling the Mayans, had writing, sophisticated art, metallurgy skills, advanced culture, trade networks that covered North America and even into Central America, and cities as large (if not larger) than anything in Europe? One of the largest pre-Columbian "Mound Builder" societies were the Toltec Culture, in Central Arkansas. What most of us think of as American Indians, the Warrior Horse Cultures of the Plains, only accounts for 200 years of Native American history and is exclusively post-columbian. There are 16,000+ years of pre-columbian history, most records of which were intentionally destroyed by Manifest Destiny policies. Here, the Funko Pops pose with stone tools from these eras.
The Pops came across many historical objects. A Civil War Confederate Uniform and equipment. A Civil War Cannon. They studied up on female outlaws from the old west, having their photo taken with a saddle belonging to Belle Star . They spent considerable time trying to determine if Bella looked as mean as her reputation. They could not resist the opportunity to hop aboard an old 18th century buckboard wagon, as well as investigate the printing press that printed Fort Smith newspapers in the Judge Isaac Parker days. They also had an opportunity to see the furnishings from Judge Isaac Parker's Courtroom.. They finished up this leg of the trip by posing with a Civil War era fire engine where they were joined by Madimetal.. Of course, you can't visit America and not check out the car that spawned the automotive revolution. The Ford Model T..
After deciding they were not going to get the latest Star Wars video game on the RCA Victor TV, the journey extended outdoors, where they visited the actual fort that gave Fort Smith its name. All that is left of that fort are the foundational walls. Here, the Funko Pops pose on the wall of the surgeon's quarters, which was also the surgery room. If those walls could talk, I'm sure they would be screaming in pain as they witnessed everything from the Indian Wars to the Civil War.
Next stop was Judge Isaac Parker's Courthouse and Jail.. Along the way they hopped aboard an 18th Century Paddy Wagon.. Federal Marshall's based out of Fort Smith handled law enforcement for all of the Indian Territory. The Indian Territory consisted of approximately 60,000 Native American's who were forcibly relocated from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States to the "Indian Territory" (now Oklahoma). Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole, and Cherokee people were relocated to the Indian Territories. Between 15,000 and 25,000 died in route from exposure, disease, and starvation. This journey is known as "The Trail Of Tears".. When driving highways and back roads in the Southeastern United States, you will frequently come across sign markers commemorating "The Trail of Tears". While there is no photo (I considered the moment somber enough not to interrupt it with photos as others were present), the Funko Pops watched a National Parks Service video inside a theater in the Courthouse detailing the Trail of Tears.
All criminals were brought from the Indian Territory to Fort Smith in front of Judge Isaac Parker. Judge Parker tried 13,490 cases. In more than 8,500 of these cases, the defendant either pleaded guilty or was convicted at trial. He sentenced 160 people to death; 79 of them were executed by hanging. The Gallows could hang 5 at a time.. I'm not exactly sure why, but the Funko Pops decided it was necessary to get a photo....., although I did manage to prevent them from climbing up to the hanging platform itself. Su Pop apparently confused the gallows with a stage (it does have trap doors, after all) and instead of being crucified, this time she would be hung.
Once inside the Courthouse, after watching the movie on 'The Trail Of Tears", the Pops checked out what it was like to be in an 18th century jail and had their photo taken with a portrait of Judge Isaac Parker. Before his days as a judge, Isaac Parker was U.S. Congressman, where he worked to enfranchise women (allow them to hold public office) and sponsored bills to allow for fair treatment of Indians inside the Indian Territory. The Pops were able to snag a photo with Congressman Isaac Parker's Congressional desk. They were also able to see the firearms and stories of several infamous outlaws. Among them "Ned Christie" (yes, movie fans, that is an actual historical character) along with artifacts associated with Cherokee Bill, including the Noose used to hang him after he killed Guard Larry Keating in an attempted escape. Also on display, artifacts from the man who actually performed the executions (hangings). Judge Isaac Parker sentenced men to hang. The man who actually did all the hanging (the "hangman") was named George Meledon. George apparently never charged for his execution services. Rather, he was paid to be the Night Guard at the jail, where he managed to wound or kill 5 additional men attempting to escape. George hung 79 people and shot 5 more. I wonder what that conversation at the Pearly Gates was like.
Unfortunately, while on their tour of Fort Smith history, Moa Pop experienced a catastrophic accident. She lost her head (for the second time) and one of her pigtails. She was rushed to the Mercy Hospital Emergency Room, where emergency surgery was performed to reattach her head and, most importantly, reattach her Pigtail. We all know what happens when their hair style changes. It was critical we got the Pigtail reattached properly in order to prevent catastrophic meltdown. After successful surgery and X-Rays to confirm all was well, the Funko Pops ran into an old friend on the way out of the building.
The following day, I went to work leaving the Funko Pops in a backpack in the backseat. I had bought them fishing poles, intending to take them up into the Ozark Mountain's to do some smallmouth fishing, but the weather simply was not permitting. However, when I came out of the office to go to lunch, I found the Funko's had broken out (I suspect Moa Pop was behind it all) and had decided to try their hand at fishing anyway.. I took a few photos, sending them to facilities management, with the suggestion they may want to fix those potholes in the parking lot they said "are not that bad"... because some little gnome like creatures had decided to use them as fishing holes. Feeling sorry for the Funko Pops... it was obvious they wanted to put their fishing poles to use, my wife took them down to the Arkansas River), Unfortunately, because of the record rainfall, they could not get close enough to the river to do any fishing. Denied again.. Fishing just was not in the cards.
Memorial Day happened to fall in the same week. In recognition of Memorial Day, as a reminder of the ramifications resulting from a failure to maintain peace, the Funko Pop's visited the National Cemetery in Fort Smith. This cemetery houses the remains of over 13,000 soldiers that have fallen from the Civil War (both Confederate and Union) to the current date. Basically, any direction you look the view is nothing but row after row after row of tombstones. (note - the pavillion to the left in this photo is where the funerals are held, people unfortunately continue to be buried here)..... and more tombstones... and yet more tombstones. My unscientific calculations are that about 75% of these graves are from WWII. The Funko Pops started the day at the flag post that is at the entrance of the cemetery. They then visited a few Civil War graves of Union soldiers from the 1st Arkansas Calvary, as well as one of the graves from an unknown solider from WWII.
After showing their respects to fallen soldiers, it was time to get down to some Fort Smith home cooking. You think Fort Smith.... Arkansas... must be talking about some good ole' Southern Cooking but nope, we're talking about Vietnamese Pho.. Following the end of the Vietnam War, many Vietnamese loyal to South Vietnam and the United States fled the country by boat and ship to avoid execution and persecution at the hands of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese. This mass migration lasted for many years and the people involved were refereed to as "Vietnamese boat people.". In total, approximately 2,000,000 Vietnamese fled Vietnam as the North took over the South. My brother was in the Navy at the time, stationed aboard the USS Kitty Hawk. In 1979 the Kitty Hawk , as part of Carrier Air Wing 15, was redirected to the oceans off of Vietnam to search for and rescue "Boat People". The Boat people rescued during this operation were sent to Fort Chaffee in Fort Smith. Many of these immigrants stayed in the area, resulting in the population of Fort Smith having an abnormally high percentage of Vietnamese per capita. As a result, we have some of the best Vietnamese food available in the U.S.... to the extent that, the taste of Fort Smith is "Vietnamese".
Side note. For those for whom the name "Fort Chaffee" rings a bell, at one time it was the largest Army base in the continental United States. It is famous because it's where Elvis attended basic training and got his hair cut. Today, that Barber shop is a museum. Elvis fans still travel to Fort Smith to see it. Much like we travel to where Su or Yui ate.
Finally, Madimetal and Kmudametal say goodbye, from Arkansas.
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